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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis.A) Lateral view. M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis is located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). The pars caudalis (ca) originates from the aponeurosis notarii (an) with one slip running cranially. It becomes tendinously (tendo axialis, ta) before insertion to C2 (indicated by an asterisk). The slips of the pars cranialis (cr) insert to the tendo axialis (ta). Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis indicated with red areas in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view. Cranial is to the left. Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips and broken line represents tendinous parts, heavy line represents aponeurosis notarii. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The heavy lines represent the aponeurosis notarii.
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pone.0134272.g008: M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis.A) Lateral view. M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis is located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). The pars caudalis (ca) originates from the aponeurosis notarii (an) with one slip running cranially. It becomes tendinously (tendo axialis, ta) before insertion to C2 (indicated by an asterisk). The slips of the pars cranialis (cr) insert to the tendo axialis (ta). Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis indicated with red areas in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view. Cranial is to the left. Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips and broken line represents tendinous parts, heavy line represents aponeurosis notarii. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The heavy lines represent the aponeurosis notarii.

Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The pars caudalis (Fig 8) takes the largest volume of the M. longus colli dorsalis. Several slips originate unipennate from the aponeuris notarii and insert both at caudally located vertebrae and to more cranially located vertebrae; insertion sites reach as far as C2 (Fig 8A). All muscle fibres are organised in parallel. In the connection diagrams (Fig 8J and 8K) it can be seen that the slips of the pars caudalis cover a large part of the cervical column.


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis.A) Lateral view. M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis is located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). The pars caudalis (ca) originates from the aponeurosis notarii (an) with one slip running cranially. It becomes tendinously (tendo axialis, ta) before insertion to C2 (indicated by an asterisk). The slips of the pars cranialis (cr) insert to the tendo axialis (ta). Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis indicated with red areas in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view. Cranial is to the left. Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips and broken line represents tendinous parts, heavy line represents aponeurosis notarii. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The heavy lines represent the aponeurosis notarii.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g008: M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis.A) Lateral view. M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis is located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). The pars caudalis (ca) originates from the aponeurosis notarii (an) with one slip running cranially. It becomes tendinously (tendo axialis, ta) before insertion to C2 (indicated by an asterisk). The slips of the pars cranialis (cr) insert to the tendo axialis (ta). Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis indicated with red areas in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view. Cranial is to the left. Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips and broken line represents tendinous parts, heavy line represents aponeurosis notarii. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The heavy lines represent the aponeurosis notarii.
Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The pars caudalis (Fig 8) takes the largest volume of the M. longus colli dorsalis. Several slips originate unipennate from the aponeuris notarii and insert both at caudally located vertebrae and to more cranially located vertebrae; insertion sites reach as far as C2 (Fig 8A). All muscle fibres are organised in parallel. In the connection diagrams (Fig 8J and 8K) it can be seen that the slips of the pars caudalis cover a large part of the cervical column.

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.