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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


M. longus colli dorsalis overview.Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis: pars cranialis (bordered by solid line) is located cranially and connected to the more caudally located pars caudalis by the tendo axialis (ta). The pars profunda (surrounded by dotted rectangle) is located ventrally from the pars caudalis. All parts are located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). Cranium (cr) and aponeurosis notarii (an) are indicated for clarity. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre.
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pone.0134272.g007: M. longus colli dorsalis overview.Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis: pars cranialis (bordered by solid line) is located cranially and connected to the more caudally located pars caudalis by the tendo axialis (ta). The pars profunda (surrounded by dotted rectangle) is located ventrally from the pars caudalis. All parts are located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). Cranium (cr) and aponeurosis notarii (an) are indicated for clarity. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre.

Mentions: Baumel et al. (1993) [6] subdivided the M. longus colli dorsalis into four parts: pars cranialis, pars caudalis, pars profunda and pars thoracica [6]. However, descriptions of the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars thoracica has not yet been clarified and this muscle may belong to the M. longissimus dorsi [6]. Because the pars thoracica’s affinities are uncertain we will leave this part out of account and treat the M. longus colli dorsalis as one muscle that has three different parts (i.e., pars cranialis, pars caudalis and pars profunda) (Fig 7), following Landolt & Zweers (1985) [22]. For clarity the individual parts are discussed separately. In T. f. pratincola the M. longus colli dorsalis (sensu lato) is a complex muscle (Fig 7) with many slips and interconnections and takes a considerable volume of the Mm. cervicales dorsales (muscle region 2).


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. longus colli dorsalis overview.Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis: pars cranialis (bordered by solid line) is located cranially and connected to the more caudally located pars caudalis by the tendo axialis (ta). The pars profunda (surrounded by dotted rectangle) is located ventrally from the pars caudalis. All parts are located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). Cranium (cr) and aponeurosis notarii (an) are indicated for clarity. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g007: M. longus colli dorsalis overview.Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis: pars cranialis (bordered by solid line) is located cranially and connected to the more caudally located pars caudalis by the tendo axialis (ta). The pars profunda (surrounded by dotted rectangle) is located ventrally from the pars caudalis. All parts are located ventrally from the M. biventer cervicis (bc). Cranium (cr) and aponeurosis notarii (an) are indicated for clarity. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre.
Mentions: Baumel et al. (1993) [6] subdivided the M. longus colli dorsalis into four parts: pars cranialis, pars caudalis, pars profunda and pars thoracica [6]. However, descriptions of the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars thoracica has not yet been clarified and this muscle may belong to the M. longissimus dorsi [6]. Because the pars thoracica’s affinities are uncertain we will leave this part out of account and treat the M. longus colli dorsalis as one muscle that has three different parts (i.e., pars cranialis, pars caudalis and pars profunda) (Fig 7), following Landolt & Zweers (1985) [22]. For clarity the individual parts are discussed separately. In T. f. pratincola the M. longus colli dorsalis (sensu lato) is a complex muscle (Fig 7) with many slips and interconnections and takes a considerable volume of the Mm. cervicales dorsales (muscle region 2).

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.