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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


M. rectus capitis ventralis.A) Craniocervical region from ventral view showing the M. rectus capitis ventralis from which the M. rectus capitis ventralis sinister, pars lateralis (l) and pars medialis (m) are bordered by a broken line. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Skull from caudal view with indicated foramen magnum (FM) and insertion site of M. rectus capitis ventralis on the os basioccipitale (red line). Scale bar represents one millimetre. C-G) Muscle attachment sites of the M. rectus capitis ventralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: ventral view (cranial is on top). Scale bars in C-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). H) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. I) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips.
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pone.0134272.g005: M. rectus capitis ventralis.A) Craniocervical region from ventral view showing the M. rectus capitis ventralis from which the M. rectus capitis ventralis sinister, pars lateralis (l) and pars medialis (m) are bordered by a broken line. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Skull from caudal view with indicated foramen magnum (FM) and insertion site of M. rectus capitis ventralis on the os basioccipitale (red line). Scale bar represents one millimetre. C-G) Muscle attachment sites of the M. rectus capitis ventralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: ventral view (cranial is on top). Scale bars in C-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). H) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. I) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips.

Mentions: Muscle characteristics: In T. f. pratincola the M. rectus capitis ventralis (Fig 5) originates ventrally from C1-C5 (Fig 5C–5G) and inserts on the os basioccipitale (Fig 5B). A pars lateralis and a pars medialis could be distinguished (Fig 5A). The parts are separated by the internal carotid arteries which run cranially. In T. f. pratincola, the two parts were strongly interconnected (Fig 5A). The length of the muscle fibres varies along the muscle, but the longest fibres (which belong to the pars lateralis), span a length of approximately three centimetres.


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. rectus capitis ventralis.A) Craniocervical region from ventral view showing the M. rectus capitis ventralis from which the M. rectus capitis ventralis sinister, pars lateralis (l) and pars medialis (m) are bordered by a broken line. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Skull from caudal view with indicated foramen magnum (FM) and insertion site of M. rectus capitis ventralis on the os basioccipitale (red line). Scale bar represents one millimetre. C-G) Muscle attachment sites of the M. rectus capitis ventralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: ventral view (cranial is on top). Scale bars in C-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). H) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. I) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g005: M. rectus capitis ventralis.A) Craniocervical region from ventral view showing the M. rectus capitis ventralis from which the M. rectus capitis ventralis sinister, pars lateralis (l) and pars medialis (m) are bordered by a broken line. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Skull from caudal view with indicated foramen magnum (FM) and insertion site of M. rectus capitis ventralis on the os basioccipitale (red line). Scale bar represents one millimetre. C-G) Muscle attachment sites of the M. rectus capitis ventralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: ventral view (cranial is on top). Scale bars in C-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). H) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. I) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips.
Mentions: Muscle characteristics: In T. f. pratincola the M. rectus capitis ventralis (Fig 5) originates ventrally from C1-C5 (Fig 5C–5G) and inserts on the os basioccipitale (Fig 5B). A pars lateralis and a pars medialis could be distinguished (Fig 5A). The parts are separated by the internal carotid arteries which run cranially. In T. f. pratincola, the two parts were strongly interconnected (Fig 5A). The length of the muscle fibres varies along the muscle, but the longest fibres (which belong to the pars lateralis), span a length of approximately three centimetres.

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.