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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


M. rectus capitis lateralis.A) Dorsolateral view on the M. rectus capitis lateralis (rcl). The muscle originates ventrally from C3-C5 (indicated by asterisks), wraps around the neck and inserts on the cranium. The M. rectus capitis lateralis is located superficially from the M. splenius capitis (sc) and M. rectus capitis dorsalis (rcd). Coordinate system indicates ventral (V), cranial (Cr), dorsal (D) and caudal (Ca). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines indicate tendinous parts. C) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view. D) Dorsal view on the skull with indicated insertion sites of the M. rectus capitis lateralis. Foramen magnum (FM) and condylus occipitalis (CO) are indicated. Scale bar represents one millimetre (adapted from [5]). E-G) Origins of the M. rectus capitis lateralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola from ventral view (cranial is on top) of vertebrae (C3-C5). Scale bars in E-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]).
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pone.0134272.g004: M. rectus capitis lateralis.A) Dorsolateral view on the M. rectus capitis lateralis (rcl). The muscle originates ventrally from C3-C5 (indicated by asterisks), wraps around the neck and inserts on the cranium. The M. rectus capitis lateralis is located superficially from the M. splenius capitis (sc) and M. rectus capitis dorsalis (rcd). Coordinate system indicates ventral (V), cranial (Cr), dorsal (D) and caudal (Ca). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines indicate tendinous parts. C) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view. D) Dorsal view on the skull with indicated insertion sites of the M. rectus capitis lateralis. Foramen magnum (FM) and condylus occipitalis (CO) are indicated. Scale bar represents one millimetre (adapted from [5]). E-G) Origins of the M. rectus capitis lateralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola from ventral view (cranial is on top) of vertebrae (C3-C5). Scale bars in E-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]).

Mentions: Insertion: The pars medialis inserts ventrally from the insertion site of the M. biventer cervicis on the os supraoccipitale (Fig 3A). The insertion site of the pars lateralis is at the os supraoccipitale, lateromedially to that of the M. rectus capitis lateralis (Fig 3B). The insertion points touch the attachment site of the M. rectus capitis lateralis (Fig 4). The area of attachment of the M. splenius capitis on the cranium is huge compared with those of the M. complexus (Fig 1) and M. biventer cervicis (Fig 2).


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. rectus capitis lateralis.A) Dorsolateral view on the M. rectus capitis lateralis (rcl). The muscle originates ventrally from C3-C5 (indicated by asterisks), wraps around the neck and inserts on the cranium. The M. rectus capitis lateralis is located superficially from the M. splenius capitis (sc) and M. rectus capitis dorsalis (rcd). Coordinate system indicates ventral (V), cranial (Cr), dorsal (D) and caudal (Ca). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines indicate tendinous parts. C) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view. D) Dorsal view on the skull with indicated insertion sites of the M. rectus capitis lateralis. Foramen magnum (FM) and condylus occipitalis (CO) are indicated. Scale bar represents one millimetre (adapted from [5]). E-G) Origins of the M. rectus capitis lateralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola from ventral view (cranial is on top) of vertebrae (C3-C5). Scale bars in E-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g004: M. rectus capitis lateralis.A) Dorsolateral view on the M. rectus capitis lateralis (rcl). The muscle originates ventrally from C3-C5 (indicated by asterisks), wraps around the neck and inserts on the cranium. The M. rectus capitis lateralis is located superficially from the M. splenius capitis (sc) and M. rectus capitis dorsalis (rcd). Coordinate system indicates ventral (V), cranial (Cr), dorsal (D) and caudal (Ca). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines indicate tendinous parts. C) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis lateralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view. D) Dorsal view on the skull with indicated insertion sites of the M. rectus capitis lateralis. Foramen magnum (FM) and condylus occipitalis (CO) are indicated. Scale bar represents one millimetre (adapted from [5]). E-G) Origins of the M. rectus capitis lateralis indicated with red ellipses in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola from ventral view (cranial is on top) of vertebrae (C3-C5). Scale bars in E-G represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]).
Mentions: Insertion: The pars medialis inserts ventrally from the insertion site of the M. biventer cervicis on the os supraoccipitale (Fig 3A). The insertion site of the pars lateralis is at the os supraoccipitale, lateromedially to that of the M. rectus capitis lateralis (Fig 3B). The insertion points touch the attachment site of the M. rectus capitis lateralis (Fig 4). The area of attachment of the M. splenius capitis on the cranium is huge compared with those of the M. complexus (Fig 1) and M. biventer cervicis (Fig 2).

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.