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Measuring Food Brand Awareness in Australian Children: Development and Validation of a New Instrument.

Turner L, Kelly B, Boyland E, Bauman AE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Brand awareness increased with age (p<0.01) but was not significantly correlated with other variables.Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the ABAI and ABAI-a.The ABAI was able to differentiate children's varying levels of brand awareness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Children's exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI) to estimate children's food brand awareness.

Methods: The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a). The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11 yrs) attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27) and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30). The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The 'nomological' validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children's brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods).

Results: Brand awareness increased with age (p<0.01) but was not significantly correlated with other variables. Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the ABAI and ABAI-a. Reliability analyses revealed excellent agreement between the two administrations of the full-ABAI.

Conclusions: The ABAI was able to differentiate children's varying levels of brand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children's prior food marketing exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sample flash card.
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pone.0133972.g001: Sample flash card.

Mentions: An age-appropriate instrument was developed using brand logos downloaded from company websites. These were de-identified by partially removing text from the logos using Adobe Photoshop CC v.12 software for Windows. Approximately 30% of included brands used a branded character instead of a logo; for example, Ronald McDonald was used instead of the golden arches symbol. The final tool used photographs of food and drinks, captured by the lead researcher (LT), to improve the authenticity of the recognition task. Four photographs were assigned to each brand (only one correct) for the recognition task. Researchers paid attention to the types of products contained in the recognition task and photos depicted only those foods that belonged to one of the ‘big 5’ products. In previous IBAI studies the selection of these products appeared arbitrary and not all could be categorised as a big 5 product. A sample flashcard can be found in Fig 1.


Measuring Food Brand Awareness in Australian Children: Development and Validation of a New Instrument.

Turner L, Kelly B, Boyland E, Bauman AE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sample flash card.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519263&req=5

pone.0133972.g001: Sample flash card.
Mentions: An age-appropriate instrument was developed using brand logos downloaded from company websites. These were de-identified by partially removing text from the logos using Adobe Photoshop CC v.12 software for Windows. Approximately 30% of included brands used a branded character instead of a logo; for example, Ronald McDonald was used instead of the golden arches symbol. The final tool used photographs of food and drinks, captured by the lead researcher (LT), to improve the authenticity of the recognition task. Four photographs were assigned to each brand (only one correct) for the recognition task. Researchers paid attention to the types of products contained in the recognition task and photos depicted only those foods that belonged to one of the ‘big 5’ products. In previous IBAI studies the selection of these products appeared arbitrary and not all could be categorised as a big 5 product. A sample flashcard can be found in Fig 1.

Bottom Line: Brand awareness increased with age (p<0.01) but was not significantly correlated with other variables.Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the ABAI and ABAI-a.The ABAI was able to differentiate children's varying levels of brand awareness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Children's exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI) to estimate children's food brand awareness.

Methods: The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a). The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11 yrs) attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27) and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30). The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The 'nomological' validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children's brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods).

Results: Brand awareness increased with age (p<0.01) but was not significantly correlated with other variables. Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the ABAI and ABAI-a. Reliability analyses revealed excellent agreement between the two administrations of the full-ABAI.

Conclusions: The ABAI was able to differentiate children's varying levels of brand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children's prior food marketing exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus