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Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives.

Metz L, Deleuze T, Pereira B, Thivel D - J Hum Kinet (2015)

Bottom Line: Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs.The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05).The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clermont University, Blaise Pascal University, Laboratory of the Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise under Physiological and Pathological Conditions (AME2P), Clermont-Ferrand, France. ; CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

ABSTRACT
Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) The level of stress before each meal during experimental conditions; (B) Hunger feeling before each meal during CON and GAME days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.
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f3-jhk-46-77: (A) The level of stress before each meal during experimental conditions; (B) Hunger feeling before each meal during CON and GAME days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.

Mentions: As shown in Figure 3A, the level of stress experienced before each meal was significantly different between GAME and CON and especially significantly higher before BF (p=0.03; z = −1.9; effect size = 1.2), lunch (p=0.01; z = −2.1; effect size = 1.6) and snack (p=0.01; z = −2.2; effect size = 1.2) on the GAME when compared with the CON day. The hunger score was not different between both conditions (Figure 3B)


Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives.

Metz L, Deleuze T, Pereira B, Thivel D - J Hum Kinet (2015)

(A) The level of stress before each meal during experimental conditions; (B) Hunger feeling before each meal during CON and GAME days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519224&req=5

f3-jhk-46-77: (A) The level of stress before each meal during experimental conditions; (B) Hunger feeling before each meal during CON and GAME days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.
Mentions: As shown in Figure 3A, the level of stress experienced before each meal was significantly different between GAME and CON and especially significantly higher before BF (p=0.03; z = −1.9; effect size = 1.2), lunch (p=0.01; z = −2.1; effect size = 1.6) and snack (p=0.01; z = −2.2; effect size = 1.2) on the GAME when compared with the CON day. The hunger score was not different between both conditions (Figure 3B)

Bottom Line: Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs.The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05).The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clermont University, Blaise Pascal University, Laboratory of the Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise under Physiological and Pathological Conditions (AME2P), Clermont-Ferrand, France. ; CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

ABSTRACT
Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus