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Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives.

Metz L, Deleuze T, Pereira B, Thivel D - J Hum Kinet (2015)

Bottom Line: Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs.The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05).The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clermont University, Blaise Pascal University, Laboratory of the Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise under Physiological and Pathological Conditions (AME2P), Clermont-Ferrand, France. ; CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

ABSTRACT
Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Total daily energy intake during GAME and CON days; (B) Total daily energy derived from macronutrients between conditions; (C) Energy intake during each meal on GAME and CON days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; CHO: Carbohydrate; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.
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f1-jhk-46-77: (A) Total daily energy intake during GAME and CON days; (B) Total daily energy derived from macronutrients between conditions; (C) Energy intake during each meal on GAME and CON days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; CHO: Carbohydrate; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.

Mentions: Although the total daily energy intake was higher during the GAME day, the difference was not statistically different when compared with CON as shown in Figure 1A (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293 kcal, respectively). The energy derived from fat and protein was not significantly different between conditions but the energy ingested derived from CHO was significantly increased on the GAME day when compared with CON (p=0.01; z = −2.0; effect size = 0.7; Figure 1B). Although Figure 1C illustrates a slightly higher energy intake during breakfast (BF) (501 ± 191 vs. 727 ± 180 kcal, respectively), lunch (842 ± 176 vs. 1020 ± 122 kcal, respectively) and snack time (120 ± 75 vs. 547 ± 123 kcal, respectively) during the GAME day when compared with CON, this is only significant for snacking (p=0.01; z = −1.9; effect size = 1.3). The energy intake at lunch time was lower during the GAME day when compared with CON but this did not reach the level of significance (823 ± 171 vs. 499 ±73, respectively).


Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives.

Metz L, Deleuze T, Pereira B, Thivel D - J Hum Kinet (2015)

(A) Total daily energy intake during GAME and CON days; (B) Total daily energy derived from macronutrients between conditions; (C) Energy intake during each meal on GAME and CON days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; CHO: Carbohydrate; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519224&req=5

f1-jhk-46-77: (A) Total daily energy intake during GAME and CON days; (B) Total daily energy derived from macronutrients between conditions; (C) Energy intake during each meal on GAME and CON days. CON: Control day; GAME: Game day; CHO: Carbohydrate; BF: Breakfast; *p<0.05.
Mentions: Although the total daily energy intake was higher during the GAME day, the difference was not statistically different when compared with CON as shown in Figure 1A (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293 kcal, respectively). The energy derived from fat and protein was not significantly different between conditions but the energy ingested derived from CHO was significantly increased on the GAME day when compared with CON (p=0.01; z = −2.0; effect size = 0.7; Figure 1B). Although Figure 1C illustrates a slightly higher energy intake during breakfast (BF) (501 ± 191 vs. 727 ± 180 kcal, respectively), lunch (842 ± 176 vs. 1020 ± 122 kcal, respectively) and snack time (120 ± 75 vs. 547 ± 123 kcal, respectively) during the GAME day when compared with CON, this is only significant for snacking (p=0.01; z = −1.9; effect size = 1.3). The energy intake at lunch time was lower during the GAME day when compared with CON but this did not reach the level of significance (823 ± 171 vs. 499 ±73, respectively).

Bottom Line: Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs.The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05).The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clermont University, Blaise Pascal University, Laboratory of the Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise under Physiological and Pathological Conditions (AME2P), Clermont-Ferrand, France. ; CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

ABSTRACT
Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus