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Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault.

Penitente G, Sands WA - J Hum Kinet (2015)

Bottom Line: These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations.Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56).Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.

No MeSH data available.


2a-Two portable force platforms mounted on a plywood based, secured to the table and covered with a thin mat. The taped lines on the mat surface designed the edges of the force platforms to provide a visual target for the gymnasts’ hands placement; (left).2b - Forward handspring vault drill (right): Pre-flight (from springboard take-off to hand-table impact); Hand Support (from hand-table impact to hand-table take-off); Post-flight (from hand-table take-off to feet-mat impact).Only the Hand support phase (white section in the picture) was analyzed in the present study.
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f2-jhk-46-59: 2a-Two portable force platforms mounted on a plywood based, secured to the table and covered with a thin mat. The taped lines on the mat surface designed the edges of the force platforms to provide a visual target for the gymnasts’ hands placement; (left).2b - Forward handspring vault drill (right): Pre-flight (from springboard take-off to hand-table impact); Hand Support (from hand-table impact to hand-table take-off); Post-flight (from hand-table take-off to feet-mat impact).Only the Hand support phase (white section in the picture) was analyzed in the present study.

Mentions: The vault table surface was equipped with two portable force platforms 37 × 37 × 4.5 cm (Pasco Scientific, USA) fixed to a rigid wooden foundation base. The force platforms were covered with a thin mat to ensure cushion and traction during hand contact (0.4 cm) and the edges of the force platforms were designated by taped lines placed on top of the thin mat surface to provide visual targets for the gymnasts’ hand placements (Figure 2a). The vault table was set at the women’s competition height of 1.25m. Reaction forces generated during forward handspring vaults were measured in the vertical (Z) and anterior-posterior (X) planes at a rate of 500 Hz. The accuracy of each force platform mounted on a rigid wooden foundation was calibrated via static linearity (both vertical and horizontal components), static regionality, and dynamic force-time comparisons against a laboratory force platform with known validity (Penitente et al., 2010).


Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault.

Penitente G, Sands WA - J Hum Kinet (2015)

2a-Two portable force platforms mounted on a plywood based, secured to the table and covered with a thin mat. The taped lines on the mat surface designed the edges of the force platforms to provide a visual target for the gymnasts’ hands placement; (left).2b - Forward handspring vault drill (right): Pre-flight (from springboard take-off to hand-table impact); Hand Support (from hand-table impact to hand-table take-off); Post-flight (from hand-table take-off to feet-mat impact).Only the Hand support phase (white section in the picture) was analyzed in the present study.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519222&req=5

f2-jhk-46-59: 2a-Two portable force platforms mounted on a plywood based, secured to the table and covered with a thin mat. The taped lines on the mat surface designed the edges of the force platforms to provide a visual target for the gymnasts’ hands placement; (left).2b - Forward handspring vault drill (right): Pre-flight (from springboard take-off to hand-table impact); Hand Support (from hand-table impact to hand-table take-off); Post-flight (from hand-table take-off to feet-mat impact).Only the Hand support phase (white section in the picture) was analyzed in the present study.
Mentions: The vault table surface was equipped with two portable force platforms 37 × 37 × 4.5 cm (Pasco Scientific, USA) fixed to a rigid wooden foundation base. The force platforms were covered with a thin mat to ensure cushion and traction during hand contact (0.4 cm) and the edges of the force platforms were designated by taped lines placed on top of the thin mat surface to provide visual targets for the gymnasts’ hand placements (Figure 2a). The vault table was set at the women’s competition height of 1.25m. Reaction forces generated during forward handspring vaults were measured in the vertical (Z) and anterior-posterior (X) planes at a rate of 500 Hz. The accuracy of each force platform mounted on a rigid wooden foundation was calibrated via static linearity (both vertical and horizontal components), static regionality, and dynamic force-time comparisons against a laboratory force platform with known validity (Penitente et al., 2010).

Bottom Line: These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations.Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56).Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.

No MeSH data available.