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Feasibility of a Short-Arm Centrifuge for Mouse Hypergravity Experiments.

Morita H, Obata K, Abe C, Shiba D, Shirakawa M, Kudo T, Takahashi S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space.Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge.Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan; Mouse Epigenetics Project, ISS/Kibo experiment, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Japan.

ABSTRACT
To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments. However, the gravitational gradient formed inside the rearing cage is larger when the radius of gyration is shorter; this may have some impact on mice. Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge. Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination. There was no difference in these responses between mice raised in a short-arm centrifuge and those in a long-arm centrifuge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a short-arm centrifuge for mouse experiments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Summarized data for the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of Sham-1g, Sham-2g-S, Sham-2g-L, and VL-2g-S.In each nucleus, three to seven slices were picked up from each mouse, and then averaged within a group. The number of Fos-labeled cells in the NTS was the sum of the bilateral NTS, whereas the other nuclei were unilateral. *P < 0.05 vs. Sham-1g.
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pone.0133981.g004: Summarized data for the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of Sham-1g, Sham-2g-S, Sham-2g-L, and VL-2g-S.In each nucleus, three to seven slices were picked up from each mouse, and then averaged within a group. The number of Fos-labeled cells in the NTS was the sum of the bilateral NTS, whereas the other nuclei were unilateral. *P < 0.05 vs. Sham-1g.

Mentions: To examine central activation induced by the long-arm and the short-arm centrifugation, Fos expression in the NTS, MVe, PVN, and SON was compared among the Sham-1g, the Sham-2g-S, the Sham-2g-L, and the VL-2g-S groups. Fig 3 shows typical photomicroscopic images of serial sections obtained from the Sham-1g, the Sham-2g-S, and the VL-2g-S. Clear Fos expressions were evident in the Sham-2g-S, but only sporadically scattered Fos-labeled neurons were found in the Sham-1g or the VL-2g-S. Data for the numbers of Fos-labeled cells are summarized in Fig 4. In both the Sham-2g-S and the Sham-2g-L, the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in the NTS, MVe, PVN, and SON increased significantly compared with those in the Sham-1g, and no differences were found between the Sham-2g-S and the Sham-2g-L. These increases were completely abolished by VL, and no differences were found in the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in these areas between Sham-1g and VL-2g-S.


Feasibility of a Short-Arm Centrifuge for Mouse Hypergravity Experiments.

Morita H, Obata K, Abe C, Shiba D, Shirakawa M, Kudo T, Takahashi S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Summarized data for the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of Sham-1g, Sham-2g-S, Sham-2g-L, and VL-2g-S.In each nucleus, three to seven slices were picked up from each mouse, and then averaged within a group. The number of Fos-labeled cells in the NTS was the sum of the bilateral NTS, whereas the other nuclei were unilateral. *P < 0.05 vs. Sham-1g.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519191&req=5

pone.0133981.g004: Summarized data for the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of Sham-1g, Sham-2g-S, Sham-2g-L, and VL-2g-S.In each nucleus, three to seven slices were picked up from each mouse, and then averaged within a group. The number of Fos-labeled cells in the NTS was the sum of the bilateral NTS, whereas the other nuclei were unilateral. *P < 0.05 vs. Sham-1g.
Mentions: To examine central activation induced by the long-arm and the short-arm centrifugation, Fos expression in the NTS, MVe, PVN, and SON was compared among the Sham-1g, the Sham-2g-S, the Sham-2g-L, and the VL-2g-S groups. Fig 3 shows typical photomicroscopic images of serial sections obtained from the Sham-1g, the Sham-2g-S, and the VL-2g-S. Clear Fos expressions were evident in the Sham-2g-S, but only sporadically scattered Fos-labeled neurons were found in the Sham-1g or the VL-2g-S. Data for the numbers of Fos-labeled cells are summarized in Fig 4. In both the Sham-2g-S and the Sham-2g-L, the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in the NTS, MVe, PVN, and SON increased significantly compared with those in the Sham-1g, and no differences were found between the Sham-2g-S and the Sham-2g-L. These increases were completely abolished by VL, and no differences were found in the numbers of Fos-labeled cells in these areas between Sham-1g and VL-2g-S.

Bottom Line: To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space.Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge.Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan; Mouse Epigenetics Project, ISS/Kibo experiment, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Japan.

ABSTRACT
To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments. However, the gravitational gradient formed inside the rearing cage is larger when the radius of gyration is shorter; this may have some impact on mice. Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge. Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination. There was no difference in these responses between mice raised in a short-arm centrifuge and those in a long-arm centrifuge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a short-arm centrifuge for mouse experiments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus