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Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Adolescents in Relation to Mobile Phone Use during Night.

Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors.Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36).Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Many adolescents tend to leave their mobile phones turned on during night, accepting that they may be awakened by an incoming text message or call. Using self-reported and objective operator recorded mobile phone use data, we thus aimed to analyze how being awakened during night by mobile phone affects adolescents' perceived health and cognitive functions. In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors. Standardized computerized cognitive tests were performed to assess memory and concentration capacity. Objective operator recorded mobile phone use data was further collected for 233 study participants. Data were analyzed by multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders including amount of mobile phone use. For adolescents reporting to be awakened by a mobile phone during night at least once a month the odds ratio for daytime tiredness and rapid exhaustibility were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02-3.39) and 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97-5.34), respectively. Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36). The cognitive tests on memory and concentration capacity were not related to mobile phone use during night. Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity. Prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Confounding by indication.
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pone.0133528.g001: Confounding by indication.

Mentions: A first model (adjusted 1) was adjusted for age, sex, class level (7th, 8th or 9th grade), nationality, school level (college preparatory high school or high school), physical activity, alcohol consumption and education of parents. Since total amount of mobile phone use is associated with night-time use, a second model (adjusted 2) was calculated with additional adjustment; we used self-reported frequency of mobile phone calls per day in the analysis with self-reported data, and recorded duration of mobile phone calls per day in the analysis with operator recorded data. This model addresses potential confounding by indication, which refers to (unmeasured) variables related to mobile phone use and to our outcomes as depicted in Fig 1. The effect of being awakened by mobile phone on the risk of being physically ill/ impaired cognitive functions will be confounded if being awakened by mobile phone is more likely in individuals with higher mobile phone use. Mobile phone use is a risk factor for our outcomes because mobile phone use has a direct causal effect on our outcomes, since both mobile phone use and our outcomes are caused by unmeasured variables (e.g. personality). We suspect confounding by indication because numerous studies observed cross-sectional associations between amount of mobile phone use and symptoms such as fatigue [16–18], depressed mood [5], and headache [17,19]. We hypothesize that such associations may be, at least partly, not directly caused by mobile phone use itself but by unmeasured factors related to mobile phone use such as personality. In epidemiological terms this means that there is a backdoor path between the exposure and the outcomes through the unmeasured variables. This backdoor path could be eliminated by conditioning (adjusting) on the unmeasured variables. Because one cannot adjust for these unmeasured variables, the backdoor path can also be blocked by conditioning (adjusting) on mobile phone use [20]. The results from the analyses with mobile phone adjustment (adjusted 2) thus represent the effect mediated by unmeasured variables (e.g. sleep disturbances) due to nocturnal mobile phone use, whereas for the results of the adjusted 1 model other factors related to mobile phone use in general may also play a role.


Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Adolescents in Relation to Mobile Phone Use during Night.

Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Confounding by indication.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519186&req=5

pone.0133528.g001: Confounding by indication.
Mentions: A first model (adjusted 1) was adjusted for age, sex, class level (7th, 8th or 9th grade), nationality, school level (college preparatory high school or high school), physical activity, alcohol consumption and education of parents. Since total amount of mobile phone use is associated with night-time use, a second model (adjusted 2) was calculated with additional adjustment; we used self-reported frequency of mobile phone calls per day in the analysis with self-reported data, and recorded duration of mobile phone calls per day in the analysis with operator recorded data. This model addresses potential confounding by indication, which refers to (unmeasured) variables related to mobile phone use and to our outcomes as depicted in Fig 1. The effect of being awakened by mobile phone on the risk of being physically ill/ impaired cognitive functions will be confounded if being awakened by mobile phone is more likely in individuals with higher mobile phone use. Mobile phone use is a risk factor for our outcomes because mobile phone use has a direct causal effect on our outcomes, since both mobile phone use and our outcomes are caused by unmeasured variables (e.g. personality). We suspect confounding by indication because numerous studies observed cross-sectional associations between amount of mobile phone use and symptoms such as fatigue [16–18], depressed mood [5], and headache [17,19]. We hypothesize that such associations may be, at least partly, not directly caused by mobile phone use itself but by unmeasured factors related to mobile phone use such as personality. In epidemiological terms this means that there is a backdoor path between the exposure and the outcomes through the unmeasured variables. This backdoor path could be eliminated by conditioning (adjusting) on the unmeasured variables. Because one cannot adjust for these unmeasured variables, the backdoor path can also be blocked by conditioning (adjusting) on mobile phone use [20]. The results from the analyses with mobile phone adjustment (adjusted 2) thus represent the effect mediated by unmeasured variables (e.g. sleep disturbances) due to nocturnal mobile phone use, whereas for the results of the adjusted 1 model other factors related to mobile phone use in general may also play a role.

Bottom Line: In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors.Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36).Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Many adolescents tend to leave their mobile phones turned on during night, accepting that they may be awakened by an incoming text message or call. Using self-reported and objective operator recorded mobile phone use data, we thus aimed to analyze how being awakened during night by mobile phone affects adolescents' perceived health and cognitive functions. In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors. Standardized computerized cognitive tests were performed to assess memory and concentration capacity. Objective operator recorded mobile phone use data was further collected for 233 study participants. Data were analyzed by multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders including amount of mobile phone use. For adolescents reporting to be awakened by a mobile phone during night at least once a month the odds ratio for daytime tiredness and rapid exhaustibility were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02-3.39) and 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97-5.34), respectively. Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36). The cognitive tests on memory and concentration capacity were not related to mobile phone use during night. Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity. Prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus