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Towards a Spatial Understanding of Trade-Offs in Sustainable Development: A Meso-Scale Analysis of the Nexus between Land Use, Poverty, and Environment in the Lao PDR.

Messerli P, Bader C, Hett C, Epprecht M, Heinimann A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: These groups are able to translate improved accessibility into poverty alleviation.Our results show that the concurrence of external influences with local-highly contextual-development potentials is key to shaping outcomes of the land use-poverty-environment nexus.By addressing such leverage points, these findings help guide more effective development interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
In land systems, equitably managing trade-offs between planetary boundaries and human development needs represents a grand challenge in sustainability oriented initiatives. Informing such initiatives requires knowledge about the nexus between land use, poverty, and environment. This paper presents results from Lao PDR, where we combined nationwide spatial data on land use types and the environmental state of landscapes with village-level poverty indicators. Our analysis reveals two general but contrasting trends. First, landscapes with paddy or permanent agriculture allow a greater number of people to live in less poverty but come at the price of a decrease in natural vegetation cover. Second, people practising extensive swidden agriculture and living in intact environments are often better off than people in degraded paddy or permanent agriculture. As poverty rates within different landscape types vary more than between landscape types, we cannot stipulate a land use-poverty-environment nexus. However, the distinct spatial patterns or configurations of these rates point to other important factors at play. Drawing on ethnicity as a proximate factor for endogenous development potentials and accessibility as a proximate factor for external influences, we further explore these linkages. Ethnicity is strongly related to poverty in all land use types almost independently of accessibility, implying that social distance outweighs geographic or physical distance. In turn, accessibility, almost a precondition for poverty alleviation, is mainly beneficial to ethnic majority groups and people living in paddy or permanent agriculture. These groups are able to translate improved accessibility into poverty alleviation. Our results show that the concurrence of external influences with local-highly contextual-development potentials is key to shaping outcomes of the land use-poverty-environment nexus. By addressing such leverage points, these findings help guide more effective development interventions. At the same time, they point to the need in land change science to better integrate the understanding of place-based land indicators with process-based drivers of land use change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial patterns of the nexus between land use intensification and poverty.The left figure seems to confirm mainstream development thinking that people in extensive swidden agriculture are poorer (orange) and people in paddy or permanent agriculture are wealthier than the average rural poverty line. Yet the figure on the right shows crucial exceptions with poorer people in paddy or permanent agriculture and wealthier people in swidden agriculture. Adapted from Messerli [46] under a CC BY license, original copyright 2009.
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pone.0133418.g004: Spatial patterns of the nexus between land use intensification and poverty.The left figure seems to confirm mainstream development thinking that people in extensive swidden agriculture are poorer (orange) and people in paddy or permanent agriculture are wealthier than the average rural poverty line. Yet the figure on the right shows crucial exceptions with poorer people in paddy or permanent agriculture and wealthier people in swidden agriculture. Adapted from Messerli [46] under a CC BY license, original copyright 2009.

Mentions: As poverty rates do not differ significantly when aggregated to different landscape types, we now turn towards the spatial arrangement of different configurations of land use, poverty, and environment across the country. Fig 4 focuses on the nexus between land use types and poverty, leaving the environmental dimension aside. This is because only a small share of the landscapes manifests a degraded environment (according to Table 1, 8.2% of the country has only bush and shrub, and 0.6% has no vegetative land cover left). Furthermore, poverty was reclassified into “poorer” and “wealthier” villages, depending on whether they have average poverty rates above or below the national rural average of 40%.


Towards a Spatial Understanding of Trade-Offs in Sustainable Development: A Meso-Scale Analysis of the Nexus between Land Use, Poverty, and Environment in the Lao PDR.

Messerli P, Bader C, Hett C, Epprecht M, Heinimann A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Spatial patterns of the nexus between land use intensification and poverty.The left figure seems to confirm mainstream development thinking that people in extensive swidden agriculture are poorer (orange) and people in paddy or permanent agriculture are wealthier than the average rural poverty line. Yet the figure on the right shows crucial exceptions with poorer people in paddy or permanent agriculture and wealthier people in swidden agriculture. Adapted from Messerli [46] under a CC BY license, original copyright 2009.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4517898&req=5

pone.0133418.g004: Spatial patterns of the nexus between land use intensification and poverty.The left figure seems to confirm mainstream development thinking that people in extensive swidden agriculture are poorer (orange) and people in paddy or permanent agriculture are wealthier than the average rural poverty line. Yet the figure on the right shows crucial exceptions with poorer people in paddy or permanent agriculture and wealthier people in swidden agriculture. Adapted from Messerli [46] under a CC BY license, original copyright 2009.
Mentions: As poverty rates do not differ significantly when aggregated to different landscape types, we now turn towards the spatial arrangement of different configurations of land use, poverty, and environment across the country. Fig 4 focuses on the nexus between land use types and poverty, leaving the environmental dimension aside. This is because only a small share of the landscapes manifests a degraded environment (according to Table 1, 8.2% of the country has only bush and shrub, and 0.6% has no vegetative land cover left). Furthermore, poverty was reclassified into “poorer” and “wealthier” villages, depending on whether they have average poverty rates above or below the national rural average of 40%.

Bottom Line: These groups are able to translate improved accessibility into poverty alleviation.Our results show that the concurrence of external influences with local-highly contextual-development potentials is key to shaping outcomes of the land use-poverty-environment nexus.By addressing such leverage points, these findings help guide more effective development interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
In land systems, equitably managing trade-offs between planetary boundaries and human development needs represents a grand challenge in sustainability oriented initiatives. Informing such initiatives requires knowledge about the nexus between land use, poverty, and environment. This paper presents results from Lao PDR, where we combined nationwide spatial data on land use types and the environmental state of landscapes with village-level poverty indicators. Our analysis reveals two general but contrasting trends. First, landscapes with paddy or permanent agriculture allow a greater number of people to live in less poverty but come at the price of a decrease in natural vegetation cover. Second, people practising extensive swidden agriculture and living in intact environments are often better off than people in degraded paddy or permanent agriculture. As poverty rates within different landscape types vary more than between landscape types, we cannot stipulate a land use-poverty-environment nexus. However, the distinct spatial patterns or configurations of these rates point to other important factors at play. Drawing on ethnicity as a proximate factor for endogenous development potentials and accessibility as a proximate factor for external influences, we further explore these linkages. Ethnicity is strongly related to poverty in all land use types almost independently of accessibility, implying that social distance outweighs geographic or physical distance. In turn, accessibility, almost a precondition for poverty alleviation, is mainly beneficial to ethnic majority groups and people living in paddy or permanent agriculture. These groups are able to translate improved accessibility into poverty alleviation. Our results show that the concurrence of external influences with local-highly contextual-development potentials is key to shaping outcomes of the land use-poverty-environment nexus. By addressing such leverage points, these findings help guide more effective development interventions. At the same time, they point to the need in land change science to better integrate the understanding of place-based land indicators with process-based drivers of land use change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus