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Rapidly shifting maturation schedules following reduced commercial harvest in a freshwater fish.

Feiner ZS, Chong SC, Knight CT, Lauer TE, Thomas MV, Tyson JT, Höök TO - Evol Appl (2015)

Bottom Line: Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron PMRNs also increased following reduced harvest, while Lake Erie populations were continuously fished and showed little change.The rapid response of maturation may have been enhanced by the short generation time of yellow perch and potential gene flow between northern and southern Lake Michigan, in addition to potential reverse adaptation following the fishing moratorium.These results suggest that some fish stocks may retain the ability to recover from fisheries-induced life history shifts following fishing moratoria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Size-selective harvest of fish stocks can lead to maturation at smaller sizes and younger ages, which may depress stock productivity and recovery. Such changes in maturation may be very slow to reverse, even following complete fisheries closures. We evaluated temporal trends in maturation of five Great Lakes stocks of yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill) using indices that attempt to disentangle plastic and evolutionary changes in maturation: age at 50% maturity and probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). Four populations were fished commercially throughout the time series, while the Lake Michigan fishery was closed following a stock collapse. We documented rapid increases in PMRNs of the Lake Michigan stock coincident with the commercial fishery closure. Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron PMRNs also increased following reduced harvest, while Lake Erie populations were continuously fished and showed little change. The rapid response of maturation may have been enhanced by the short generation time of yellow perch and potential gene flow between northern and southern Lake Michigan, in addition to potential reverse adaptation following the fishing moratorium. These results suggest that some fish stocks may retain the ability to recover from fisheries-induced life history shifts following fishing moratoria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of trends in the height and slope of female yellow perch PMRNs from (A) Lake Michigan, where the commercial fishery was closed in 1997, and (B) central Lake Erie, where fishing has continued throughout the study period. Different symbols represent different decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s), and error bars represent 95% credible intervals of posterior distributions. Points are offset on the x-axis by 0.1 years for clarity.
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fig04: Comparison of trends in the height and slope of female yellow perch PMRNs from (A) Lake Michigan, where the commercial fishery was closed in 1997, and (B) central Lake Erie, where fishing has continued throughout the study period. Different symbols represent different decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s), and error bars represent 95% credible intervals of posterior distributions. Points are offset on the x-axis by 0.1 years for clarity.

Mentions: Finally, yellow perch exhibits positive maternal effects on egg size, larval size, and larval provisioning, potentially improving survival of larvae produced by older or larger females (Heyer et al. 2001; Andree et al. 2014). Such maternal effects could enhance reproductive benefits for females that delay maturation in favor of increasing size. This is a concept that has remained largely unaccounted for in modeling studies of evolutionary recovery from fishing, even as others have suggested the slow recovery of life history traits may result from relatively little fitness benefit for delaying maturation (e.g. Law 2000; Enberg et al. 2009; Kuparinen and Hutchings 2012). The temporal shift in the Lake Michigan female PMRN from a flat slope to a strongly negative slope, while central Erie female PMRNs remained largely flat (Fig.4), may support the hypothesis that maternal effects can influence the adaptive response of populations to changes in size-selective fishing pressure (Hutchings 2004). In general, we observed largely sex-specific changes in PMRNs, where females exhibited large changes in PMRNs while males generally exhibited little change. A similar pattern was observed in several species reviewed by Devine et al. (2012)—PMRNs in males tended to exhibit less change than for females in a given stock. This could be the result of very different suites of life history trade-offs apparent for males and females, reducing the relative importance of size to reproductive success in males compared to females (Diana and Salz 1990; Collingsworth and Marschall 2011), in addition to sexually dimorphic growth patterns reducing the relative susceptibility of immature males to harvest (Wilberg et al. 2005). This evidence potentially supports the hypothesis that maternal effects on reproductive fitness may influence life history responses to harvest. As size- and age-based maternal effects have been observed in a number of exploited species (e.g. Marteinsdottir and Steinarsson 1998; Venturelli et al. 2009; Hixon et al. 2014), further examinations of the importance of maternal effects to life history adaptation could yield new predictions for the adaptive trajectories of exploited stocks.


Rapidly shifting maturation schedules following reduced commercial harvest in a freshwater fish.

Feiner ZS, Chong SC, Knight CT, Lauer TE, Thomas MV, Tyson JT, Höök TO - Evol Appl (2015)

Comparison of trends in the height and slope of female yellow perch PMRNs from (A) Lake Michigan, where the commercial fishery was closed in 1997, and (B) central Lake Erie, where fishing has continued throughout the study period. Different symbols represent different decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s), and error bars represent 95% credible intervals of posterior distributions. Points are offset on the x-axis by 0.1 years for clarity.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4516423&req=5

fig04: Comparison of trends in the height and slope of female yellow perch PMRNs from (A) Lake Michigan, where the commercial fishery was closed in 1997, and (B) central Lake Erie, where fishing has continued throughout the study period. Different symbols represent different decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s), and error bars represent 95% credible intervals of posterior distributions. Points are offset on the x-axis by 0.1 years for clarity.
Mentions: Finally, yellow perch exhibits positive maternal effects on egg size, larval size, and larval provisioning, potentially improving survival of larvae produced by older or larger females (Heyer et al. 2001; Andree et al. 2014). Such maternal effects could enhance reproductive benefits for females that delay maturation in favor of increasing size. This is a concept that has remained largely unaccounted for in modeling studies of evolutionary recovery from fishing, even as others have suggested the slow recovery of life history traits may result from relatively little fitness benefit for delaying maturation (e.g. Law 2000; Enberg et al. 2009; Kuparinen and Hutchings 2012). The temporal shift in the Lake Michigan female PMRN from a flat slope to a strongly negative slope, while central Erie female PMRNs remained largely flat (Fig.4), may support the hypothesis that maternal effects can influence the adaptive response of populations to changes in size-selective fishing pressure (Hutchings 2004). In general, we observed largely sex-specific changes in PMRNs, where females exhibited large changes in PMRNs while males generally exhibited little change. A similar pattern was observed in several species reviewed by Devine et al. (2012)—PMRNs in males tended to exhibit less change than for females in a given stock. This could be the result of very different suites of life history trade-offs apparent for males and females, reducing the relative importance of size to reproductive success in males compared to females (Diana and Salz 1990; Collingsworth and Marschall 2011), in addition to sexually dimorphic growth patterns reducing the relative susceptibility of immature males to harvest (Wilberg et al. 2005). This evidence potentially supports the hypothesis that maternal effects on reproductive fitness may influence life history responses to harvest. As size- and age-based maternal effects have been observed in a number of exploited species (e.g. Marteinsdottir and Steinarsson 1998; Venturelli et al. 2009; Hixon et al. 2014), further examinations of the importance of maternal effects to life history adaptation could yield new predictions for the adaptive trajectories of exploited stocks.

Bottom Line: Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron PMRNs also increased following reduced harvest, while Lake Erie populations were continuously fished and showed little change.The rapid response of maturation may have been enhanced by the short generation time of yellow perch and potential gene flow between northern and southern Lake Michigan, in addition to potential reverse adaptation following the fishing moratorium.These results suggest that some fish stocks may retain the ability to recover from fisheries-induced life history shifts following fishing moratoria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Size-selective harvest of fish stocks can lead to maturation at smaller sizes and younger ages, which may depress stock productivity and recovery. Such changes in maturation may be very slow to reverse, even following complete fisheries closures. We evaluated temporal trends in maturation of five Great Lakes stocks of yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill) using indices that attempt to disentangle plastic and evolutionary changes in maturation: age at 50% maturity and probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). Four populations were fished commercially throughout the time series, while the Lake Michigan fishery was closed following a stock collapse. We documented rapid increases in PMRNs of the Lake Michigan stock coincident with the commercial fishery closure. Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron PMRNs also increased following reduced harvest, while Lake Erie populations were continuously fished and showed little change. The rapid response of maturation may have been enhanced by the short generation time of yellow perch and potential gene flow between northern and southern Lake Michigan, in addition to potential reverse adaptation following the fishing moratorium. These results suggest that some fish stocks may retain the ability to recover from fisheries-induced life history shifts following fishing moratoria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus