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Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

Wei W, Yu Y, Chen L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied.We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation.Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The designed micro-patterns of surface BSCs.Note: (a) fully-covered moss, (b) fully-covered lichen, (c) fully-covered physical crust, (d) non-crusted bare soil, (e) upper half mosses and lower half bare soil, (f) upper half bare soil and lower half moss, (g)scattered mosses with 50% coverage, (h) rainfall simulator, (i) upper half lichen and lower half non-crust soil, (j) upper half non-crust soil and lower half lichen, (k) scattered lichens with 50% coverage, and (l) runoff and sediment collector.
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pone.0133565.g002: The designed micro-patterns of surface BSCs.Note: (a) fully-covered moss, (b) fully-covered lichen, (c) fully-covered physical crust, (d) non-crusted bare soil, (e) upper half mosses and lower half bare soil, (f) upper half bare soil and lower half moss, (g)scattered mosses with 50% coverage, (h) rainfall simulator, (i) upper half lichen and lower half non-crust soil, (j) upper half non-crust soil and lower half lichen, (k) scattered lichens with 50% coverage, and (l) runoff and sediment collector.

Mentions: In July, 2011, a gentle slope (330°aspect and 8°gradient) covered by natural grasses in the Anjiagou catchment, was selected for micro-plot construction. In total, 12 micro-plots, with different BSCs types and arrangements, were established across the upper and middle sections of the selected slope (Fig 2). Among them, 8 plots were directly used for rainfall simulations, while the other 4 replicated plots (fully-covered mosses and lichens, PCs and non-crusted bare soil types) were designed only for soil sampling and data analysis. The specific area of each plot was designed as 0.5 m2 (0.5 m wide and 1.0 m long). All the plots were constructed and bounded by 30 cm high and 5 mm thick steel metal sheets that were inserted to half their height in the ground. These measures can keep plots stable and prevent any outside disturbance. Each micro-plot was equipped with a 50 L container to collect the expected runoff and sediment (Figs 1 & 2).


Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

Wei W, Yu Y, Chen L - PLoS ONE (2015)

The designed micro-patterns of surface BSCs.Note: (a) fully-covered moss, (b) fully-covered lichen, (c) fully-covered physical crust, (d) non-crusted bare soil, (e) upper half mosses and lower half bare soil, (f) upper half bare soil and lower half moss, (g)scattered mosses with 50% coverage, (h) rainfall simulator, (i) upper half lichen and lower half non-crust soil, (j) upper half non-crust soil and lower half lichen, (k) scattered lichens with 50% coverage, and (l) runoff and sediment collector.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514780&req=5

pone.0133565.g002: The designed micro-patterns of surface BSCs.Note: (a) fully-covered moss, (b) fully-covered lichen, (c) fully-covered physical crust, (d) non-crusted bare soil, (e) upper half mosses and lower half bare soil, (f) upper half bare soil and lower half moss, (g)scattered mosses with 50% coverage, (h) rainfall simulator, (i) upper half lichen and lower half non-crust soil, (j) upper half non-crust soil and lower half lichen, (k) scattered lichens with 50% coverage, and (l) runoff and sediment collector.
Mentions: In July, 2011, a gentle slope (330°aspect and 8°gradient) covered by natural grasses in the Anjiagou catchment, was selected for micro-plot construction. In total, 12 micro-plots, with different BSCs types and arrangements, were established across the upper and middle sections of the selected slope (Fig 2). Among them, 8 plots were directly used for rainfall simulations, while the other 4 replicated plots (fully-covered mosses and lichens, PCs and non-crusted bare soil types) were designed only for soil sampling and data analysis. The specific area of each plot was designed as 0.5 m2 (0.5 m wide and 1.0 m long). All the plots were constructed and bounded by 30 cm high and 5 mm thick steel metal sheets that were inserted to half their height in the ground. These measures can keep plots stable and prevent any outside disturbance. Each micro-plot was equipped with a 50 L container to collect the expected runoff and sediment (Figs 1 & 2).

Bottom Line: Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied.We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation.Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus