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An Enriched European Eel Transcriptome Sheds Light upon Host-Pathogen Interactions with Vibrio vulnificus.

Callol A, Reyes-López FE, Roig FJ, Goetz G, Goetz FW, Amaro C, MacKenzie SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We obtained more than 2 x 10(6) reads that were assembled and annotated into 45,067 new descriptions with a notable representation of novel transcripts related with pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the immune response.Then, we designed a DNA-microarray that was used to analyze the early immune response against Vibrio vulnificus, a septicemic pathogen that uses the gills as the portal of entry into the blood, as well as the role of the main toxin of this species (RtxA13) on this early interaction.Finally, we also found evidence of the presence of an interbranchial lymphoid tissue in European eel gills although further experiments will be necessary to identify such tissue.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departament de Microbiologia i Ecologia, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain; Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases are one of the principal bottlenecks for the European eel recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a new molecular tool to be used in host-pathogen interaction experiments in the eel. To this end, we first stimulated adult eels with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), extracted RNA from the immune-related tissues and sequenced the transcriptome. We obtained more than 2 x 10(6) reads that were assembled and annotated into 45,067 new descriptions with a notable representation of novel transcripts related with pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the immune response. Then, we designed a DNA-microarray that was used to analyze the early immune response against Vibrio vulnificus, a septicemic pathogen that uses the gills as the portal of entry into the blood, as well as the role of the main toxin of this species (RtxA13) on this early interaction. The gill transcriptomic profiles obtained after bath infecting eels with the wild type strain or with a mutant deficient in rtxA13 were analyzed and compared. Results demonstrate that eels react rapidly and locally against the pathogen and that this immune-response is rtxA13-dependent as transcripts related with cell destruction were highly up-regulated only in the gills from eels infected with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, significant differences in the immune response against the wild type and the mutant strain also suggest that host survival after V. vulnificus infection could depend on an efficient local phagocytic activity. Finally, we also found evidence of the presence of an interbranchial lymphoid tissue in European eel gills although further experiments will be necessary to identify such tissue.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Intensity of response after R99 infection (A-B) or CT285 infection (C-D) represented in number on DEGs grouped in 3 groups by fold change (FC), from 2 to 3, from 3 to 4 and over 4.Red bars are upregulated transcripts and green bars are downregulated transcripts. (A and C) Loop analysis approach and on (B and D) Relative analysis against handling control group (HC).
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pone.0133328.g003: Intensity of response after R99 infection (A-B) or CT285 infection (C-D) represented in number on DEGs grouped in 3 groups by fold change (FC), from 2 to 3, from 3 to 4 and over 4.Red bars are upregulated transcripts and green bars are downregulated transcripts. (A and C) Loop analysis approach and on (B and D) Relative analysis against handling control group (HC).

Mentions: Microarrays were analyzed following minimum information about microarray experiment (MIAME) guidelines manual [27]. Two different analytical approaches were used for the microarray data to provide the most complete interpretation of the results. On one hand, we performed a loop analysis [30] (Table A in S2 File), revealing the modulation of the response in a time-dependent manner and thus assessing transient changes (Figs 2A, 3A and 3C). On the other hand, we carried out a relative analysis, comparing all groups to the handling control (HC) group, used as a reference (Table B and Fig A-B in S2 File). This evaluated accumulated changes against the starting point (Figs 2B, 3B and 3D).


An Enriched European Eel Transcriptome Sheds Light upon Host-Pathogen Interactions with Vibrio vulnificus.

Callol A, Reyes-López FE, Roig FJ, Goetz G, Goetz FW, Amaro C, MacKenzie SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Intensity of response after R99 infection (A-B) or CT285 infection (C-D) represented in number on DEGs grouped in 3 groups by fold change (FC), from 2 to 3, from 3 to 4 and over 4.Red bars are upregulated transcripts and green bars are downregulated transcripts. (A and C) Loop analysis approach and on (B and D) Relative analysis against handling control group (HC).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514713&req=5

pone.0133328.g003: Intensity of response after R99 infection (A-B) or CT285 infection (C-D) represented in number on DEGs grouped in 3 groups by fold change (FC), from 2 to 3, from 3 to 4 and over 4.Red bars are upregulated transcripts and green bars are downregulated transcripts. (A and C) Loop analysis approach and on (B and D) Relative analysis against handling control group (HC).
Mentions: Microarrays were analyzed following minimum information about microarray experiment (MIAME) guidelines manual [27]. Two different analytical approaches were used for the microarray data to provide the most complete interpretation of the results. On one hand, we performed a loop analysis [30] (Table A in S2 File), revealing the modulation of the response in a time-dependent manner and thus assessing transient changes (Figs 2A, 3A and 3C). On the other hand, we carried out a relative analysis, comparing all groups to the handling control (HC) group, used as a reference (Table B and Fig A-B in S2 File). This evaluated accumulated changes against the starting point (Figs 2B, 3B and 3D).

Bottom Line: We obtained more than 2 x 10(6) reads that were assembled and annotated into 45,067 new descriptions with a notable representation of novel transcripts related with pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the immune response.Then, we designed a DNA-microarray that was used to analyze the early immune response against Vibrio vulnificus, a septicemic pathogen that uses the gills as the portal of entry into the blood, as well as the role of the main toxin of this species (RtxA13) on this early interaction.Finally, we also found evidence of the presence of an interbranchial lymphoid tissue in European eel gills although further experiments will be necessary to identify such tissue.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departament de Microbiologia i Ecologia, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain; Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Infectious diseases are one of the principal bottlenecks for the European eel recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a new molecular tool to be used in host-pathogen interaction experiments in the eel. To this end, we first stimulated adult eels with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), extracted RNA from the immune-related tissues and sequenced the transcriptome. We obtained more than 2 x 10(6) reads that were assembled and annotated into 45,067 new descriptions with a notable representation of novel transcripts related with pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the immune response. Then, we designed a DNA-microarray that was used to analyze the early immune response against Vibrio vulnificus, a septicemic pathogen that uses the gills as the portal of entry into the blood, as well as the role of the main toxin of this species (RtxA13) on this early interaction. The gill transcriptomic profiles obtained after bath infecting eels with the wild type strain or with a mutant deficient in rtxA13 were analyzed and compared. Results demonstrate that eels react rapidly and locally against the pathogen and that this immune-response is rtxA13-dependent as transcripts related with cell destruction were highly up-regulated only in the gills from eels infected with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, significant differences in the immune response against the wild type and the mutant strain also suggest that host survival after V. vulnificus infection could depend on an efficient local phagocytic activity. Finally, we also found evidence of the presence of an interbranchial lymphoid tissue in European eel gills although further experiments will be necessary to identify such tissue.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus