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Reduction of (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste from (68)Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

de Blois E, Chan HS, Roy K, Krenning EP, Breeman WA - J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2010)

Bottom Line: Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste.Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation.With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, 's Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

PET with (68)Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ((68)Ge vs. (68)Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of (68)Ge activity is produced by eluting the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste. Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of (68)Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the (68)Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate (68)Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore (68)Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

No MeSH data available.


Sorption of 68Ge activity on Zeolite was investigated as f[pH]. After 24 h the samples were centrifuged. Supernatant was decanted and 68Ge activity was quantified. Sorption of 68Ge activity using Zeolite was optimal at pH <1
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Fig5: Sorption of 68Ge activity on Zeolite was investigated as f[pH]. After 24 h the samples were centrifuged. Supernatant was decanted and 68Ge activity was quantified. Sorption of 68Ge activity using Zeolite was optimal at pH <1

Mentions: Recirculation system containing ±1 g of TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite as sorption material enclosed with cotton, glass fiber and filters of 35 and 0.45 μm. 68Ge activity containing waste was recirculated at a flow rate of ±1 mL/min. Samples of the circulating liquid were taken at indicated time points (see also Figs. 5, 6)


Reduction of (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste from (68)Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

de Blois E, Chan HS, Roy K, Krenning EP, Breeman WA - J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2010)

Sorption of 68Ge activity on Zeolite was investigated as f[pH]. After 24 h the samples were centrifuged. Supernatant was decanted and 68Ge activity was quantified. Sorption of 68Ge activity using Zeolite was optimal at pH <1
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514634&req=5

Fig5: Sorption of 68Ge activity on Zeolite was investigated as f[pH]. After 24 h the samples were centrifuged. Supernatant was decanted and 68Ge activity was quantified. Sorption of 68Ge activity using Zeolite was optimal at pH <1
Mentions: Recirculation system containing ±1 g of TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite as sorption material enclosed with cotton, glass fiber and filters of 35 and 0.45 μm. 68Ge activity containing waste was recirculated at a flow rate of ±1 mL/min. Samples of the circulating liquid were taken at indicated time points (see also Figs. 5, 6)

Bottom Line: Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste.Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation.With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, 's Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

PET with (68)Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ((68)Ge vs. (68)Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of (68)Ge activity is produced by eluting the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste. Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of (68)Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the (68)Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate (68)Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore (68)Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

No MeSH data available.