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Reduction of (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste from (68)Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

de Blois E, Chan HS, Roy K, Krenning EP, Breeman WA - J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2010)

Bottom Line: Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste.Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation.With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, 's Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

PET with (68)Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ((68)Ge vs. (68)Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of (68)Ge activity is produced by eluting the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste. Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of (68)Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the (68)Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate (68)Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore (68)Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

No MeSH data available.


Complexation of 68Ge activity of 68Ge containing liquid waste (pH 8) with Fe2O3(a) or TiO2(b) as sorbent as function of time (1–24 h) and mass of sorbent (10–100 mg/mL)
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Fig4: Complexation of 68Ge activity of 68Ge containing liquid waste (pH 8) with Fe2O3(a) or TiO2(b) as sorbent as function of time (1–24 h) and mass of sorbent (10–100 mg/mL)

Mentions: Firstly, sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 was investigated time-dependently. Sorption of 68Ge activity on TiO2 (0.5 g/50 mL 68Ge waste) was low (<20%) at pH <2 and high (>99%) at pH >6 (Fig. 2). Sorption of 68Ge activity on Fe2O3 (0.5 g/50 mL 68Ge waste), showed better result at pH 1–3 (>75% Fe2O3 and <25% TiO2) and increased also as f[pH] up to >99% at pH 8. Optimal sorption was obtained at pH ≥5 (Fig. 2). Secondly sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 was investigated as f[mass] and additions of sorption material. Sorption of 68Ge activity increased after each addition of sorption material. Moreover, Fe2O3 surprisingly continues to lower the 68Ge activity logarithmically after each addition of Fe2O3, whereas with TiO2 the value of 10 Bq 68Ge per mL level was reached asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 as sorption material reduces the 68Ge activity by approximately 90% after each addition of sorption material (Fig. 3), eg. from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g in six procedures. Low amounts (10 mg/mL) of sorbent showed similar 68Ge activity sorption at later time points in comparison with an amount of 100 mg/mL (Fig. 4a, b).Fig. 2


Reduction of (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste from (68)Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

de Blois E, Chan HS, Roy K, Krenning EP, Breeman WA - J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2010)

Complexation of 68Ge activity of 68Ge containing liquid waste (pH 8) with Fe2O3(a) or TiO2(b) as sorbent as function of time (1–24 h) and mass of sorbent (10–100 mg/mL)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514634&req=5

Fig4: Complexation of 68Ge activity of 68Ge containing liquid waste (pH 8) with Fe2O3(a) or TiO2(b) as sorbent as function of time (1–24 h) and mass of sorbent (10–100 mg/mL)
Mentions: Firstly, sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 was investigated time-dependently. Sorption of 68Ge activity on TiO2 (0.5 g/50 mL 68Ge waste) was low (<20%) at pH <2 and high (>99%) at pH >6 (Fig. 2). Sorption of 68Ge activity on Fe2O3 (0.5 g/50 mL 68Ge waste), showed better result at pH 1–3 (>75% Fe2O3 and <25% TiO2) and increased also as f[pH] up to >99% at pH 8. Optimal sorption was obtained at pH ≥5 (Fig. 2). Secondly sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 was investigated as f[mass] and additions of sorption material. Sorption of 68Ge activity increased after each addition of sorption material. Moreover, Fe2O3 surprisingly continues to lower the 68Ge activity logarithmically after each addition of Fe2O3, whereas with TiO2 the value of 10 Bq 68Ge per mL level was reached asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 as sorption material reduces the 68Ge activity by approximately 90% after each addition of sorption material (Fig. 3), eg. from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g in six procedures. Low amounts (10 mg/mL) of sorbent showed similar 68Ge activity sorption at later time points in comparison with an amount of 100 mg/mL (Fig. 4a, b).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste.Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation.With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, 's Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

PET with (68)Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ((68)Ge vs. (68)Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of (68)Ge activity is produced by eluting the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste. Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of (68)Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the (68)Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate (68)Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore (68)Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

No MeSH data available.