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Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

Huang PC, Tsai CH, Liang WY, Li SS, Pan WH, Chiang HC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors.We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women.Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.

Method: We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.

Results: The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the general Taiwanese population varied by age and gender, possibly affected by different lifestyles, and continuing bio-monitoring surveillance is warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of 11 phthalate metabolites in a sample of the general Taiwanese population (N = 387) by age groups (solid line inside the box plot: median).
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pone.0133782.g003: Distribution of 11 phthalate metabolites in a sample of the general Taiwanese population (N = 387) by age groups (solid line inside the box plot: median).

Mentions: Fig 3 showed the distribution and median levels of phthalate metabolites in our sample of the general Taiwanese population classified into four age groups. We found that J-shape curves of the exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP(P = 0.002), MnBP (P = 0.044), MiNP (P<0.001), MBzP (P<0.001) and MMP (P<0.001) in our subjects were significantly varied by age regardless of gender, which indicated minors may expose to higher level of these phthalates than adults. The median level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) at age 18–40 years was significantly (P<0.001) higher than the other age groups, especially for women. Besides, median levels of MnBP and MiBP in all subjects decreased along with increasing age. No significant change of MEHP in our subjects was observed regardless of age or gender. Detailed data were shown in the S2 Table.


Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

Huang PC, Tsai CH, Liang WY, Li SS, Pan WH, Chiang HC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Distribution of 11 phthalate metabolites in a sample of the general Taiwanese population (N = 387) by age groups (solid line inside the box plot: median).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514596&req=5

pone.0133782.g003: Distribution of 11 phthalate metabolites in a sample of the general Taiwanese population (N = 387) by age groups (solid line inside the box plot: median).
Mentions: Fig 3 showed the distribution and median levels of phthalate metabolites in our sample of the general Taiwanese population classified into four age groups. We found that J-shape curves of the exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP(P = 0.002), MnBP (P = 0.044), MiNP (P<0.001), MBzP (P<0.001) and MMP (P<0.001) in our subjects were significantly varied by age regardless of gender, which indicated minors may expose to higher level of these phthalates than adults. The median level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) at age 18–40 years was significantly (P<0.001) higher than the other age groups, especially for women. Besides, median levels of MnBP and MiBP in all subjects decreased along with increasing age. No significant change of MEHP in our subjects was observed regardless of age or gender. Detailed data were shown in the S2 Table.

Bottom Line: Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors.We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women.Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.

Method: We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.

Results: The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the general Taiwanese population varied by age and gender, possibly affected by different lifestyles, and continuing bio-monitoring surveillance is warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus