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Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

Huang PC, Tsai CH, Liang WY, Li SS, Pan WH, Chiang HC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors.We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women.Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.

Method: We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.

Results: The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the general Taiwanese population varied by age and gender, possibly affected by different lifestyles, and continuing bio-monitoring surveillance is warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Eleven sampling sites of the TEST study in Taiwan.
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pone.0133782.g001: Eleven sampling sites of the TEST study in Taiwan.

Mentions: In order to obtain sufficient participation from the general Taiwanese population, we collaborated with the National and Nutrition Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) team and used the same sampling frame and procedure in subject recruitment [25]. There are five major regions and 22 cities/ counties in Taiwan (Fig 1). Briefly, NAHSIT selected twenty major cities/ counties of Taiwan and selected subjects in all age groups. According to the population density and urbanization of each city in Taiwan, each city township is classified into two groups. Then, NAHSIT randomly selected two townships of each group to represent a city/ county. Subjects had to be Taiwanese ≥7 years old, and excluded pregnant and breast-feeding women, individuals with severe disease (e.g. cancer patients), foreigners, and citizens in hospitals and jails [25]. We selected seventeen townships of eleven cities/ counties in the northern region (ex.: Taipei and New Taipei City), central region (ex.: Taichung and Chia-Yi City), southern region (ex.: Kaohsiung City), eastern region (ex.: Hua-Lien County), and the remote island region (Peng-Hu County) of Taiwan (Fig 1) during a time period from May to December 2013. We interviewed a total of 500 subjects on the day of health examination at community center or elementary school; 394 subjects participated in this study, which yielded a response rate around 78%. Most of the subjects who refused participation were children afraid to provide samples.


Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode.

Huang PC, Tsai CH, Liang WY, Li SS, Pan WH, Chiang HC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Eleven sampling sites of the TEST study in Taiwan.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514596&req=5

pone.0133782.g001: Eleven sampling sites of the TEST study in Taiwan.
Mentions: In order to obtain sufficient participation from the general Taiwanese population, we collaborated with the National and Nutrition Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) team and used the same sampling frame and procedure in subject recruitment [25]. There are five major regions and 22 cities/ counties in Taiwan (Fig 1). Briefly, NAHSIT selected twenty major cities/ counties of Taiwan and selected subjects in all age groups. According to the population density and urbanization of each city in Taiwan, each city township is classified into two groups. Then, NAHSIT randomly selected two townships of each group to represent a city/ county. Subjects had to be Taiwanese ≥7 years old, and excluded pregnant and breast-feeding women, individuals with severe disease (e.g. cancer patients), foreigners, and citizens in hospitals and jails [25]. We selected seventeen townships of eleven cities/ counties in the northern region (ex.: Taipei and New Taipei City), central region (ex.: Taichung and Chia-Yi City), southern region (ex.: Kaohsiung City), eastern region (ex.: Hua-Lien County), and the remote island region (Peng-Hu County) of Taiwan (Fig 1) during a time period from May to December 2013. We interviewed a total of 500 subjects on the day of health examination at community center or elementary school; 394 subjects participated in this study, which yielded a response rate around 78%. Most of the subjects who refused participation were children afraid to provide samples.

Bottom Line: Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors.We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women.Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use.

Method: We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors.

Results: The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that DEHP and DBP exposure in a sample of the general Taiwanese population varied by age and gender, possibly affected by different lifestyles, and continuing bio-monitoring surveillance is warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus