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Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

Andoh M, Sakata A, Takano A, Kawabata H, Fujita H, Une Y, Goka K, Kishimoto T, Ando S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan.These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks.These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Virology-1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan.

ABSTRACT
One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and potential pathogens carried by ticks in reptiles, amphibians, and other animals, in order to improve national and international public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships between the Ehrlichia spp. genes based on sequence comparison of the groEL gene 319-bp fragment.The phylogenetic branches showed supported of >70% by bootstrap analysis. Identified sequences are in bold type. The bar indicates the percentage of sequence divergence.
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pone.0133700.g004: Phylogenetic relationships between the Ehrlichia spp. genes based on sequence comparison of the groEL gene 319-bp fragment.The phylogenetic branches showed supported of >70% by bootstrap analysis. Identified sequences are in bold type. The bar indicates the percentage of sequence divergence.

Mentions: In the Ehrlichia groEL gene (Fig 4), 100% identity was found between ZambiaAS57-E, Ehrlichia sp. HF565, and Ehrlichia sp. Anan; ZambiaAS69-E and Ehrlichia chaffeensis; and ZambiaAS74O/74S-E and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Other new ehrlichial sequences were in the same phylogenetic cluster (Fig 4).


Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

Andoh M, Sakata A, Takano A, Kawabata H, Fujita H, Une Y, Goka K, Kishimoto T, Ando S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogenetic relationships between the Ehrlichia spp. genes based on sequence comparison of the groEL gene 319-bp fragment.The phylogenetic branches showed supported of >70% by bootstrap analysis. Identified sequences are in bold type. The bar indicates the percentage of sequence divergence.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514593&req=5

pone.0133700.g004: Phylogenetic relationships between the Ehrlichia spp. genes based on sequence comparison of the groEL gene 319-bp fragment.The phylogenetic branches showed supported of >70% by bootstrap analysis. Identified sequences are in bold type. The bar indicates the percentage of sequence divergence.
Mentions: In the Ehrlichia groEL gene (Fig 4), 100% identity was found between ZambiaAS57-E, Ehrlichia sp. HF565, and Ehrlichia sp. Anan; ZambiaAS69-E and Ehrlichia chaffeensis; and ZambiaAS74O/74S-E and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Other new ehrlichial sequences were in the same phylogenetic cluster (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan.These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks.These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Virology-1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan.

ABSTRACT
One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and potential pathogens carried by ticks in reptiles, amphibians, and other animals, in order to improve national and international public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus