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Concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclides and some heavy metals in soil samples from the eastern part of the Main Ridge of the Flysch Carpathians.

Kubica B, Szarlowicz K, Stobinski M, Skiba S, Reczynski W, Gołas J - J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2014)

Bottom Line: This might indicate though a high competitiveness of these elements between each other.Moreover, a good correlation between the concentrations of artificial element (137)Cs and Pb has been also observed in soil samples collected from the Beskid Niski Mts.In most cases, the level of artificial (137)Cs was lower comparing to an average (137)Cs concentration established for soils in Poland.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to present the results of determination of radioactivity of artificial (137)Cs and natural (40)K and certain heavy metals in soil samples collected from the eastern part of the Main Ridge of Carpathians, including the Beskid Niski Mts and the Bieszczady Mts. The evaluation of level of radionuclides was based on the bulk density analysis of the soil. A valuable finding of the study was a good linear correlation between the level of (137)Cs concentration and bulk density of the soil as well as an inverse correlation between radioactivity of natural (40)K and tested soil density. This might indicate though a high competitiveness of these elements between each other. Moreover, a good correlation between the concentrations of artificial element (137)Cs and Pb has been also observed in soil samples collected from the Beskid Niski Mts. In most cases, the level of artificial (137)Cs was lower comparing to an average (137)Cs concentration established for soils in Poland.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Radioceasium-137/potassium-40 activity ratio presented as a function of the density of tested soil samples
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig5: Radioceasium-137/potassium-40 activity ratio presented as a function of the density of tested soil samples

Mentions: The radioactivity of artificial 137Cs and natural 40K in the soils collected from the Main Ridge of the Flysch Carpathians, specifically from region of the Beskid Niski Mts and from the region of the Bieszczady Mts is given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. The data obtained from selected soil covers (the Beskid Niski Mts and the Bieszczady Mts area) showed high variation. The 137Cs concentration in the Beskid Niski Mts area ranged between 16 and 1,137 Bq/kg in the first layer (a-layer) of soil cores and from 843 to 8,463 Bq/m2 for the entire 10 cm depth soil core (Tab 1). The concentration of 137Cs in the Bieszczady Mts varied from 143 to 609 Bq/kg (for the layer “a”) and from 1,385 to 3,505 Bq/m2 for the sum of the layers a, b and c (Table 1). It is noticeable, that the 137Cs radioactivity level was relatively low (about 107 Bq/kg) in the Beskid Niski Mts with exception of three sampling points located near Kozie Żebro Mt (points 8–10) (Table 1; Fig. 1). Fluctuations of the radionuclides concentration in the soils could strongly depend on the meteorological conditions. Thus, the elevated activity of 137Cs around Kozie Żebro Mt might have contributions from increased precipitation that occurred in May and June 1986 year (approximately 119–167 dm3/m2). In April that year, the rainfalls observed in the Beskid Niski Mts as well as in the Bieszczady Mts (apart from a few of small regions—Kozie Żebro) were rather small (24 dm3/m2) [12]. As mentioned above, the concentration of 137Cs in the western part of the Beskid Niski was low, however, the radioactivity rapidly increased close to Skibice 1,127 Bq/kg, (8,463 Bq/m2, sampling point no 8) and again was slightly reduced to approximately 165 Bq/kg (1,378 Bq/m2, sampling point no 11). This trend is also observed in the Bieszczady Mts, both on Połonina Wetlińska and Caryńskie (sampling points 14–18) with noticeable elevation of 137Cs occurred in the so-called “Socket Tarnica” (sampling point 19). All sampling sites with high level of 40K showed low concentration of 137Cs (Figs. 1, 2). These two isotopes belong to the same group of alkali metals, have similar chemical properties and are strong reducing agents. That is an explanation for competitive-sorption behavior of these two elements in the soil. The competitiveness between 40K and 137Cs in mountain soils has been already demonstrated in the previous studies [8–11, 13]. Also, for all sampling sites, the correlations between the 137Cs level, altitude and soil bulk density were found. It is well documented, that mountain soil properties are altered with the altitude, particularly the features of upper soil layers (O horizon, first 10 cm). In the surface soil layers, the level of organic material increases with the altitude (included the subalpine zone). It is noticeable, that not only the quantity of organic mass changes but also its decomposition stages and the content of humic and fulvic acids (the ratio of humic acids in humus organic matter) [14]. The humus modification implies the perturbations on soil bulk density, contributes to the small immobilization of radiocaesium in organic part of soils and hence to its higher availability to plants [15]. In this context, the relation between soil bulk density and 137Cs concentration might reflect the interdependence between the altitude and 137Cs concentration. The radioactivity obtained for both gamma emitters was also presented in relation to the volume density of the soils (Figs. 3, 4). The concentration of 137Cs underwent massive fluctuations in sampled soils however, we found a good linear correlation between 137Cs radioactivity expressed in mass units in the first layer (a) of soil core, and the soil density (Fig. 4). This correlation was less clear when comparing the radioactivity of this radionuclide expressed in units of surface (Fig. 3) and calculated for the entire 10 cm layer of soil a, b and c. There was significantly better correlation between the activity of 40K and the soil density observed in the Beskid Niski Mts and the Bieszczady Mts area. It is also noticeable, that the radioactivity of 137Cs and 40K per area unit corresponded well to the concentrations of these radionuclides expressed per mass units. Obtained results are in line with the data from similar studies carried out on the other mountain areas (the Tatra Mts and the Charnohora Mts). Our findings also confirmed the hypothesis of the radioactive caesium sorption in the organic soil layers. With increase of the soil density, the concentration of 137Cs decreased and in the same time, the amount of natural 40K increased what was shown in Figs. 1 and 2. For all sampling points, the ratio of 137Cs activity to the potassium (both for the first layer “a” and for the whole profile) presented as the function of the soil density was calculated (Fig. 5). Given results might also indicate that in some cases 40K was present not only in the mineral, but also in organic layer of the tested soils.Fig. 1


Concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclides and some heavy metals in soil samples from the eastern part of the Main Ridge of the Flysch Carpathians.

Kubica B, Szarlowicz K, Stobinski M, Skiba S, Reczynski W, Gołas J - J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2014)

Radioceasium-137/potassium-40 activity ratio presented as a function of the density of tested soil samples
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514587&req=5

Fig5: Radioceasium-137/potassium-40 activity ratio presented as a function of the density of tested soil samples
Mentions: The radioactivity of artificial 137Cs and natural 40K in the soils collected from the Main Ridge of the Flysch Carpathians, specifically from region of the Beskid Niski Mts and from the region of the Bieszczady Mts is given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. The data obtained from selected soil covers (the Beskid Niski Mts and the Bieszczady Mts area) showed high variation. The 137Cs concentration in the Beskid Niski Mts area ranged between 16 and 1,137 Bq/kg in the first layer (a-layer) of soil cores and from 843 to 8,463 Bq/m2 for the entire 10 cm depth soil core (Tab 1). The concentration of 137Cs in the Bieszczady Mts varied from 143 to 609 Bq/kg (for the layer “a”) and from 1,385 to 3,505 Bq/m2 for the sum of the layers a, b and c (Table 1). It is noticeable, that the 137Cs radioactivity level was relatively low (about 107 Bq/kg) in the Beskid Niski Mts with exception of three sampling points located near Kozie Żebro Mt (points 8–10) (Table 1; Fig. 1). Fluctuations of the radionuclides concentration in the soils could strongly depend on the meteorological conditions. Thus, the elevated activity of 137Cs around Kozie Żebro Mt might have contributions from increased precipitation that occurred in May and June 1986 year (approximately 119–167 dm3/m2). In April that year, the rainfalls observed in the Beskid Niski Mts as well as in the Bieszczady Mts (apart from a few of small regions—Kozie Żebro) were rather small (24 dm3/m2) [12]. As mentioned above, the concentration of 137Cs in the western part of the Beskid Niski was low, however, the radioactivity rapidly increased close to Skibice 1,127 Bq/kg, (8,463 Bq/m2, sampling point no 8) and again was slightly reduced to approximately 165 Bq/kg (1,378 Bq/m2, sampling point no 11). This trend is also observed in the Bieszczady Mts, both on Połonina Wetlińska and Caryńskie (sampling points 14–18) with noticeable elevation of 137Cs occurred in the so-called “Socket Tarnica” (sampling point 19). All sampling sites with high level of 40K showed low concentration of 137Cs (Figs. 1, 2). These two isotopes belong to the same group of alkali metals, have similar chemical properties and are strong reducing agents. That is an explanation for competitive-sorption behavior of these two elements in the soil. The competitiveness between 40K and 137Cs in mountain soils has been already demonstrated in the previous studies [8–11, 13]. Also, for all sampling sites, the correlations between the 137Cs level, altitude and soil bulk density were found. It is well documented, that mountain soil properties are altered with the altitude, particularly the features of upper soil layers (O horizon, first 10 cm). In the surface soil layers, the level of organic material increases with the altitude (included the subalpine zone). It is noticeable, that not only the quantity of organic mass changes but also its decomposition stages and the content of humic and fulvic acids (the ratio of humic acids in humus organic matter) [14]. The humus modification implies the perturbations on soil bulk density, contributes to the small immobilization of radiocaesium in organic part of soils and hence to its higher availability to plants [15]. In this context, the relation between soil bulk density and 137Cs concentration might reflect the interdependence between the altitude and 137Cs concentration. The radioactivity obtained for both gamma emitters was also presented in relation to the volume density of the soils (Figs. 3, 4). The concentration of 137Cs underwent massive fluctuations in sampled soils however, we found a good linear correlation between 137Cs radioactivity expressed in mass units in the first layer (a) of soil core, and the soil density (Fig. 4). This correlation was less clear when comparing the radioactivity of this radionuclide expressed in units of surface (Fig. 3) and calculated for the entire 10 cm layer of soil a, b and c. There was significantly better correlation between the activity of 40K and the soil density observed in the Beskid Niski Mts and the Bieszczady Mts area. It is also noticeable, that the radioactivity of 137Cs and 40K per area unit corresponded well to the concentrations of these radionuclides expressed per mass units. Obtained results are in line with the data from similar studies carried out on the other mountain areas (the Tatra Mts and the Charnohora Mts). Our findings also confirmed the hypothesis of the radioactive caesium sorption in the organic soil layers. With increase of the soil density, the concentration of 137Cs decreased and in the same time, the amount of natural 40K increased what was shown in Figs. 1 and 2. For all sampling points, the ratio of 137Cs activity to the potassium (both for the first layer “a” and for the whole profile) presented as the function of the soil density was calculated (Fig. 5). Given results might also indicate that in some cases 40K was present not only in the mineral, but also in organic layer of the tested soils.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: This might indicate though a high competitiveness of these elements between each other.Moreover, a good correlation between the concentrations of artificial element (137)Cs and Pb has been also observed in soil samples collected from the Beskid Niski Mts.In most cases, the level of artificial (137)Cs was lower comparing to an average (137)Cs concentration established for soils in Poland.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to present the results of determination of radioactivity of artificial (137)Cs and natural (40)K and certain heavy metals in soil samples collected from the eastern part of the Main Ridge of Carpathians, including the Beskid Niski Mts and the Bieszczady Mts. The evaluation of level of radionuclides was based on the bulk density analysis of the soil. A valuable finding of the study was a good linear correlation between the level of (137)Cs concentration and bulk density of the soil as well as an inverse correlation between radioactivity of natural (40)K and tested soil density. This might indicate though a high competitiveness of these elements between each other. Moreover, a good correlation between the concentrations of artificial element (137)Cs and Pb has been also observed in soil samples collected from the Beskid Niski Mts. In most cases, the level of artificial (137)Cs was lower comparing to an average (137)Cs concentration established for soils in Poland.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus