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Coupled cell networks are target cells of inflammation, which can spread between different body organs and develop into systemic chronic inflammation.

Hansson E, Skiöldebrand E - J Inflamm (Lond) (2015)

Bottom Line: The transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions comprising connexin 43.Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells.These cells are targets for inflammation, which can be initiated after injury or in disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Per Dubbsgatan 14, 1tr, , SE 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Several organs in the body comprise cells coupled into networks. These cells have in common that they are excitable but do not express action potentials. Furthermore, they are equipped with Ca(2+) signaling systems, which can be intercellular and/or extracellular. The transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions comprising connexin 43. Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells. These cells are targets for inflammation, which can be initiated after injury or in disease. If the inflammation reaches the CNS, it develops into neuroinflammation and can be of importance in the development of systemic chronic inflammation, which can manifest as pain and result in changes in the expression and structure of cellular components. Biochemical parameters of importance for cellular functions are described in this review.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration highlighting the different organs in the body that comprise cells coupled into networks. These cells are excitable but do not express action potentials. They are equipped with Ca2+ signaling systems, and the transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions. Examples of cells coupled into networks are astrocytes in the brain, keratinocytes in the skin and buccal membranes, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage, osteoblasts in bone, connective tissue cells such as epithelial cells in the cornea and tenocytes in the ligaments, cardiac fibroblasts in the heart, hepatocytes in the liver, and different types of glandular cells throughout the body. The illustration was created by Pontus Andersson, ArtProduction, Gothenburg, Sweden
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Fig1: Schematic illustration highlighting the different organs in the body that comprise cells coupled into networks. These cells are excitable but do not express action potentials. They are equipped with Ca2+ signaling systems, and the transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions. Examples of cells coupled into networks are astrocytes in the brain, keratinocytes in the skin and buccal membranes, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage, osteoblasts in bone, connective tissue cells such as epithelial cells in the cornea and tenocytes in the ligaments, cardiac fibroblasts in the heart, hepatocytes in the liver, and different types of glandular cells throughout the body. The illustration was created by Pontus Andersson, ArtProduction, Gothenburg, Sweden

Mentions: Similarities exist between different types of coupled cell networks in different body organs with respect to several cellular parameters. Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells (Fig. 1). Intercellular communication gives tissues the ability to coordinate many cellular functions such as the regulation of cell volume, intracellular ionic composition, and cell metabolism. Characteristics such as their passive electrical properties not only provide the framework and metabolic support for different organs but also contribute to their computational power and behavioral output. These properties enable more active functions and are endowed through Ca2+-based excitability [19]. Intracellular Ca2+ changes are important due to their influence on many cell functions, including matrix synthesis and degradation [20]. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels can lead to the release of signaling molecules such as transmitters, cytokines, prostaglandins, proteins, and peptides via regulated exocytosis [21]. The dynamic components of exocytosis include the vesicular-plasma membrane secretory machinery and vesicular traffic, which is governed by general cytoskeletal elements [22]. For this machinery to work, intercellular structures called gap junctions, which directly connect the interior of adjacent cells through a pathway not open to the extracellular space, appear necessary [23]. Gap junction channels comprise two hemichannels, called connexons, one of which is provided by each of the joined cells. These channels select for the direct exchange of ions, metabolites, and small molecules such as Ca2+, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), glutamate, prostaglandins, and glutathione, which are less than 1.5 kDa in size, between contiguous cells [24]. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the primary gap junction protein [25]. Cytoskeletal reorganization is pivotal event in all of these processes; dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton plays an essential role in cell migration and proliferation. Actin appears in two forms, globular actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin), and the transition between these two forms is a dynamic process driven by polymerization and depolymerization [26] (Fig. 2).Fig. 1


Coupled cell networks are target cells of inflammation, which can spread between different body organs and develop into systemic chronic inflammation.

Hansson E, Skiöldebrand E - J Inflamm (Lond) (2015)

Schematic illustration highlighting the different organs in the body that comprise cells coupled into networks. These cells are excitable but do not express action potentials. They are equipped with Ca2+ signaling systems, and the transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions. Examples of cells coupled into networks are astrocytes in the brain, keratinocytes in the skin and buccal membranes, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage, osteoblasts in bone, connective tissue cells such as epithelial cells in the cornea and tenocytes in the ligaments, cardiac fibroblasts in the heart, hepatocytes in the liver, and different types of glandular cells throughout the body. The illustration was created by Pontus Andersson, ArtProduction, Gothenburg, Sweden
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514450&req=5

Fig1: Schematic illustration highlighting the different organs in the body that comprise cells coupled into networks. These cells are excitable but do not express action potentials. They are equipped with Ca2+ signaling systems, and the transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions. Examples of cells coupled into networks are astrocytes in the brain, keratinocytes in the skin and buccal membranes, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage, osteoblasts in bone, connective tissue cells such as epithelial cells in the cornea and tenocytes in the ligaments, cardiac fibroblasts in the heart, hepatocytes in the liver, and different types of glandular cells throughout the body. The illustration was created by Pontus Andersson, ArtProduction, Gothenburg, Sweden
Mentions: Similarities exist between different types of coupled cell networks in different body organs with respect to several cellular parameters. Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells (Fig. 1). Intercellular communication gives tissues the ability to coordinate many cellular functions such as the regulation of cell volume, intracellular ionic composition, and cell metabolism. Characteristics such as their passive electrical properties not only provide the framework and metabolic support for different organs but also contribute to their computational power and behavioral output. These properties enable more active functions and are endowed through Ca2+-based excitability [19]. Intracellular Ca2+ changes are important due to their influence on many cell functions, including matrix synthesis and degradation [20]. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels can lead to the release of signaling molecules such as transmitters, cytokines, prostaglandins, proteins, and peptides via regulated exocytosis [21]. The dynamic components of exocytosis include the vesicular-plasma membrane secretory machinery and vesicular traffic, which is governed by general cytoskeletal elements [22]. For this machinery to work, intercellular structures called gap junctions, which directly connect the interior of adjacent cells through a pathway not open to the extracellular space, appear necessary [23]. Gap junction channels comprise two hemichannels, called connexons, one of which is provided by each of the joined cells. These channels select for the direct exchange of ions, metabolites, and small molecules such as Ca2+, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), glutamate, prostaglandins, and glutathione, which are less than 1.5 kDa in size, between contiguous cells [24]. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the primary gap junction protein [25]. Cytoskeletal reorganization is pivotal event in all of these processes; dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton plays an essential role in cell migration and proliferation. Actin appears in two forms, globular actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin), and the transition between these two forms is a dynamic process driven by polymerization and depolymerization [26] (Fig. 2).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions comprising connexin 43.Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells.These cells are targets for inflammation, which can be initiated after injury or in disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Per Dubbsgatan 14, 1tr, , SE 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Several organs in the body comprise cells coupled into networks. These cells have in common that they are excitable but do not express action potentials. Furthermore, they are equipped with Ca(2+) signaling systems, which can be intercellular and/or extracellular. The transport of small molecules between the cells occurs through gap junctions comprising connexin 43. Examples of cells coupled into networks include astrocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts, connective tissue cells, cardiac and corneal fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, hepatocytes, and different types of glandular cells. These cells are targets for inflammation, which can be initiated after injury or in disease. If the inflammation reaches the CNS, it develops into neuroinflammation and can be of importance in the development of systemic chronic inflammation, which can manifest as pain and result in changes in the expression and structure of cellular components. Biochemical parameters of importance for cellular functions are described in this review.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus