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Ground Reaction Forces of the Lead and Trail Limbs when Stepping Over an Obstacle.

Bovonsunthonchai S, Khobkhun F, Vachalathiti R - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

Bottom Line: The main effects on the limb were found in first peak vertical force, minimum vertical force, propulsive peak force, and propulsive impulse.Significant main effects of condition were found in time to minimum force, time to the second peak force, time to propulsive peak force, first peak vertical force, braking peak force, propulsive peak force, vertical impulse, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse.Interaction effects of limb and condition were found in first peak vertical force, propulsive peak force, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Physical Therapy, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

ABSTRACT

Background: Precise force generation and absorption during stepping over different obstacles need to be quantified for task accomplishment. This study aimed to quantify how the lead limb (LL) and trail limb (TL) generate and absorb forces while stepping over obstacle of various heights.

Material and methods: Thirteen healthy young women participated in the study. Force data were collected from 2 force plates when participants stepped over obstacles. Two limbs (right LL and left TL) and 4 conditions of stepping (no obstacle, stepping over 5 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm obstacle heights) were tested for main effect and interaction effect by 2-way ANOVA. Paired t-test and 1-way repeated-measure ANOVA were used to compare differences of variables between limbs and among stepping conditions, respectively. The main effects on the limb were found in first peak vertical force, minimum vertical force, propulsive peak force, and propulsive impulse.

Results: Significant main effects of condition were found in time to minimum force, time to the second peak force, time to propulsive peak force, first peak vertical force, braking peak force, propulsive peak force, vertical impulse, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse. Interaction effects of limb and condition were found in first peak vertical force, propulsive peak force, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse.

Conclusions: Adaptations of force generation in the LL and TL were found to involve adaptability to altered external environment during stepping in healthy young adults.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparisons of the variables [(A) 1) Time to the first peak force, 2) Time to minimum force, 3) Time to the second peak force, 4) Time to braking peak force, and 5) Time to propulsive peak force, (B) 1) First peak vertical force, 2) Minimum vertical force, 3) Second peak vertical force, 4) Braking peak force, and 5) Propulsive peak force, and (C) 1) Vertical impulse, 2) Braking impulse, and 3) Propulsive impulse] between the lead limb and trail limb during obstacle crossing over 20 cm obstacle height condition (n=13), significant difference tested by paired t-test at p<0.05.
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f4-medscimonit-21-2041: Comparisons of the variables [(A) 1) Time to the first peak force, 2) Time to minimum force, 3) Time to the second peak force, 4) Time to braking peak force, and 5) Time to propulsive peak force, (B) 1) First peak vertical force, 2) Minimum vertical force, 3) Second peak vertical force, 4) Braking peak force, and 5) Propulsive peak force, and (C) 1) Vertical impulse, 2) Braking impulse, and 3) Propulsive impulse] between the lead limb and trail limb during obstacle crossing over 20 cm obstacle height condition (n=13), significant difference tested by paired t-test at p<0.05.

Mentions: In each condition of obstacle crossing, the paired t-test was used to compare the variables between sides. No significant difference between the left and right sides was found when walking in the no obstacle condition (Figure 2). When crossing the 5 cm obstacle height, there were significant differences of time to the second peak force (p=0.001) and time to propulsive peak force (p=0.002) between LL and TL (Figure 3). When crossing the 20-cm obstacle height, significant differences were found between the LL and TL in time to propulsive peak force (p=0.024), minimum vertical force (p=0.005), propulsive peak force (p=0.024), braking impulse (p=0.004), and propulsive impulse (p=0.010) (Figure 4). For crossing an obstacle 30 cm high, significant differences were found between LL and TL in first peak vertical force (p=0.001), minimum vertical force (p=0.001), braking peak force (p=0.010), propulsive peak force (p=0.002), braking impulse (p=0.001), and propulsive impulse (p=0.001) (Figure 5).


Ground Reaction Forces of the Lead and Trail Limbs when Stepping Over an Obstacle.

Bovonsunthonchai S, Khobkhun F, Vachalathiti R - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

Comparisons of the variables [(A) 1) Time to the first peak force, 2) Time to minimum force, 3) Time to the second peak force, 4) Time to braking peak force, and 5) Time to propulsive peak force, (B) 1) First peak vertical force, 2) Minimum vertical force, 3) Second peak vertical force, 4) Braking peak force, and 5) Propulsive peak force, and (C) 1) Vertical impulse, 2) Braking impulse, and 3) Propulsive impulse] between the lead limb and trail limb during obstacle crossing over 20 cm obstacle height condition (n=13), significant difference tested by paired t-test at p<0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4514366&req=5

f4-medscimonit-21-2041: Comparisons of the variables [(A) 1) Time to the first peak force, 2) Time to minimum force, 3) Time to the second peak force, 4) Time to braking peak force, and 5) Time to propulsive peak force, (B) 1) First peak vertical force, 2) Minimum vertical force, 3) Second peak vertical force, 4) Braking peak force, and 5) Propulsive peak force, and (C) 1) Vertical impulse, 2) Braking impulse, and 3) Propulsive impulse] between the lead limb and trail limb during obstacle crossing over 20 cm obstacle height condition (n=13), significant difference tested by paired t-test at p<0.05.
Mentions: In each condition of obstacle crossing, the paired t-test was used to compare the variables between sides. No significant difference between the left and right sides was found when walking in the no obstacle condition (Figure 2). When crossing the 5 cm obstacle height, there were significant differences of time to the second peak force (p=0.001) and time to propulsive peak force (p=0.002) between LL and TL (Figure 3). When crossing the 20-cm obstacle height, significant differences were found between the LL and TL in time to propulsive peak force (p=0.024), minimum vertical force (p=0.005), propulsive peak force (p=0.024), braking impulse (p=0.004), and propulsive impulse (p=0.010) (Figure 4). For crossing an obstacle 30 cm high, significant differences were found between LL and TL in first peak vertical force (p=0.001), minimum vertical force (p=0.001), braking peak force (p=0.010), propulsive peak force (p=0.002), braking impulse (p=0.001), and propulsive impulse (p=0.001) (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: The main effects on the limb were found in first peak vertical force, minimum vertical force, propulsive peak force, and propulsive impulse.Significant main effects of condition were found in time to minimum force, time to the second peak force, time to propulsive peak force, first peak vertical force, braking peak force, propulsive peak force, vertical impulse, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse.Interaction effects of limb and condition were found in first peak vertical force, propulsive peak force, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Physical Therapy, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

ABSTRACT

Background: Precise force generation and absorption during stepping over different obstacles need to be quantified for task accomplishment. This study aimed to quantify how the lead limb (LL) and trail limb (TL) generate and absorb forces while stepping over obstacle of various heights.

Material and methods: Thirteen healthy young women participated in the study. Force data were collected from 2 force plates when participants stepped over obstacles. Two limbs (right LL and left TL) and 4 conditions of stepping (no obstacle, stepping over 5 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm obstacle heights) were tested for main effect and interaction effect by 2-way ANOVA. Paired t-test and 1-way repeated-measure ANOVA were used to compare differences of variables between limbs and among stepping conditions, respectively. The main effects on the limb were found in first peak vertical force, minimum vertical force, propulsive peak force, and propulsive impulse.

Results: Significant main effects of condition were found in time to minimum force, time to the second peak force, time to propulsive peak force, first peak vertical force, braking peak force, propulsive peak force, vertical impulse, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse. Interaction effects of limb and condition were found in first peak vertical force, propulsive peak force, braking impulse, and propulsive impulse.

Conclusions: Adaptations of force generation in the LL and TL were found to involve adaptability to altered external environment during stepping in healthy young adults.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus