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Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America.

Bueso F, Moreno L, Cedeño M, Manzanarez K - J Biol Eng (2015)

Bottom Line: After 24 h transesterification, Jatropha (81 %) and palm oil (86 %) biodiesel yields with TL as catalyst were significantly higher than CA (<70 %) but inferior to NaOH (>90 %).Enzymatic catalysts (TL and CA) produced Jatropha biodiesel with optimum flow properties but did not complied with ASTM D6751 stability parameters (free fatty acid content and oil stability index).Lower quality due to incomplete alcoholysis and esterification, potential added costs due to need of more than 24 h to achieve comparable biodiesel yields and extra post-transesterification refining reactions are among the remaining drawbacks for the environmentally friendlier enzymatic catalysis of crude Jatropha oil to become an economically viable alternative to chemical catalysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, EAP Zamorano University, P.O. Box 93, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

ABSTRACT

Background: Extensive native Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) crop areas have been planted in Central America marginal lands since 2008 as a non-edible prospective feedstock alternative to high-value, edible palm oil. Jatropha biodiesel is currently exclusively produced in the region at commercial scale utilizing alkaline catalysts. Recently, a free, soluble Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) 1,3 specific lipase has shown promise as biocatalyst, reportedly yielding up to 96 % ASTM D6751 compliant biodiesel after 24 h transesterification of soybean, canola oils and other feedstocks. Biodiesel conversion rate and quality of enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil was evaluated. Two lipases: free, soluble TL and immobilized Candida antarctica (CA) catalyzed methanolic transesterification of crude Jatropha and refined palm oil.

Results: Jatropha yields were similar to palm biodiesel with NaOH as catalyst. After 24 h transesterification, Jatropha (81 %) and palm oil (86 %) biodiesel yields with TL as catalyst were significantly higher than CA (<70 %) but inferior to NaOH (>90 %). Enzymatic catalysts (TL and CA) produced Jatropha biodiesel with optimum flow properties but did not complied with ASTM D6751 stability parameters (free fatty acid content and oil stability index).

Conclusions: Biodiesel production with filtered, degummed, low FFA Jatropha oil using a free liquid lipase (TL) as catalyst showed higher yielding potential than immobilized CA lipase as substitute of RBD palm oil with alkaline catalyst. However, Jatropha enzymatic biodiesel yield and stability were inferior to alkaline catalyzed biodiesel and not in compliance with international quality standards. Lower quality due to incomplete alcoholysis and esterification, potential added costs due to need of more than 24 h to achieve comparable biodiesel yields and extra post-transesterification refining reactions are among the remaining drawbacks for the environmentally friendlier enzymatic catalysis of crude Jatropha oil to become an economically viable alternative to chemical catalysis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

GC-FID FAME profile of enzymatic and alkali-catalyzed Jatropha and Palm biodiesel. a Chromatogram of Jatropha biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are: hexadecanoic (16:0), octadecanoic (18:0), cis-9 octadecenoic (18:1n9c cis-9) and cis-9, 12 octadecadienoic (18:2n6 cis-9, 12) b TL-catalyzed Jatropha biodiesel chromatogram. c Chromatogram of palm biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. d Chromatogram of palm biodiesel produced with TL enzymatic catalyst
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Fig2: GC-FID FAME profile of enzymatic and alkali-catalyzed Jatropha and Palm biodiesel. a Chromatogram of Jatropha biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are: hexadecanoic (16:0), octadecanoic (18:0), cis-9 octadecenoic (18:1n9c cis-9) and cis-9, 12 octadecadienoic (18:2n6 cis-9, 12) b TL-catalyzed Jatropha biodiesel chromatogram. c Chromatogram of palm biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. d Chromatogram of palm biodiesel produced with TL enzymatic catalyst

Mentions: FAME profile of Jatropha (Fig. 2a) and palm biodiesel (Fig. 2c) produced with NaOH as catalyst were similar to reported fatty acid profiles of palm [19] and Jatropha [20] oils. In contrast, FAME profile of enzymatic biodiesel from Jatropha (Fig. 2b) and palm (Fig. 2d) oils were significantly different compared to biodiesel catalyzed by NaOH (Table 3). Saturated FAME (16:0 and 18:0) increased while unsaturated (18:1 cis-9) decreased. An increase in saturated FAME such as palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) coupled with a decrease in unsaturated linolenic FAME (18:2) have been associated with increased cetane number in biodiesel produced from palm oil [21]. Changes in FAME profile of enzymatically-produced biodiesel did not significantly change cetane number compared to NaOH-catalyzed biodiesel (Tables 2, 3).Fig. 2


Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America.

Bueso F, Moreno L, Cedeño M, Manzanarez K - J Biol Eng (2015)

GC-FID FAME profile of enzymatic and alkali-catalyzed Jatropha and Palm biodiesel. a Chromatogram of Jatropha biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are: hexadecanoic (16:0), octadecanoic (18:0), cis-9 octadecenoic (18:1n9c cis-9) and cis-9, 12 octadecadienoic (18:2n6 cis-9, 12) b TL-catalyzed Jatropha biodiesel chromatogram. c Chromatogram of palm biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. d Chromatogram of palm biodiesel produced with TL enzymatic catalyst
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4513677&req=5

Fig2: GC-FID FAME profile of enzymatic and alkali-catalyzed Jatropha and Palm biodiesel. a Chromatogram of Jatropha biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are: hexadecanoic (16:0), octadecanoic (18:0), cis-9 octadecenoic (18:1n9c cis-9) and cis-9, 12 octadecadienoic (18:2n6 cis-9, 12) b TL-catalyzed Jatropha biodiesel chromatogram. c Chromatogram of palm biodiesel catalyzed with NaOH. d Chromatogram of palm biodiesel produced with TL enzymatic catalyst
Mentions: FAME profile of Jatropha (Fig. 2a) and palm biodiesel (Fig. 2c) produced with NaOH as catalyst were similar to reported fatty acid profiles of palm [19] and Jatropha [20] oils. In contrast, FAME profile of enzymatic biodiesel from Jatropha (Fig. 2b) and palm (Fig. 2d) oils were significantly different compared to biodiesel catalyzed by NaOH (Table 3). Saturated FAME (16:0 and 18:0) increased while unsaturated (18:1 cis-9) decreased. An increase in saturated FAME such as palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) coupled with a decrease in unsaturated linolenic FAME (18:2) have been associated with increased cetane number in biodiesel produced from palm oil [21]. Changes in FAME profile of enzymatically-produced biodiesel did not significantly change cetane number compared to NaOH-catalyzed biodiesel (Tables 2, 3).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: After 24 h transesterification, Jatropha (81 %) and palm oil (86 %) biodiesel yields with TL as catalyst were significantly higher than CA (<70 %) but inferior to NaOH (>90 %).Enzymatic catalysts (TL and CA) produced Jatropha biodiesel with optimum flow properties but did not complied with ASTM D6751 stability parameters (free fatty acid content and oil stability index).Lower quality due to incomplete alcoholysis and esterification, potential added costs due to need of more than 24 h to achieve comparable biodiesel yields and extra post-transesterification refining reactions are among the remaining drawbacks for the environmentally friendlier enzymatic catalysis of crude Jatropha oil to become an economically viable alternative to chemical catalysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, EAP Zamorano University, P.O. Box 93, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

ABSTRACT

Background: Extensive native Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) crop areas have been planted in Central America marginal lands since 2008 as a non-edible prospective feedstock alternative to high-value, edible palm oil. Jatropha biodiesel is currently exclusively produced in the region at commercial scale utilizing alkaline catalysts. Recently, a free, soluble Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) 1,3 specific lipase has shown promise as biocatalyst, reportedly yielding up to 96 % ASTM D6751 compliant biodiesel after 24 h transesterification of soybean, canola oils and other feedstocks. Biodiesel conversion rate and quality of enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil was evaluated. Two lipases: free, soluble TL and immobilized Candida antarctica (CA) catalyzed methanolic transesterification of crude Jatropha and refined palm oil.

Results: Jatropha yields were similar to palm biodiesel with NaOH as catalyst. After 24 h transesterification, Jatropha (81 %) and palm oil (86 %) biodiesel yields with TL as catalyst were significantly higher than CA (<70 %) but inferior to NaOH (>90 %). Enzymatic catalysts (TL and CA) produced Jatropha biodiesel with optimum flow properties but did not complied with ASTM D6751 stability parameters (free fatty acid content and oil stability index).

Conclusions: Biodiesel production with filtered, degummed, low FFA Jatropha oil using a free liquid lipase (TL) as catalyst showed higher yielding potential than immobilized CA lipase as substitute of RBD palm oil with alkaline catalyst. However, Jatropha enzymatic biodiesel yield and stability were inferior to alkaline catalyzed biodiesel and not in compliance with international quality standards. Lower quality due to incomplete alcoholysis and esterification, potential added costs due to need of more than 24 h to achieve comparable biodiesel yields and extra post-transesterification refining reactions are among the remaining drawbacks for the environmentally friendlier enzymatic catalysis of crude Jatropha oil to become an economically viable alternative to chemical catalysis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus