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Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells.

Tilaoui M, Ait Mouse H, Jaafari A, Zyad A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts.Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba.Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biological Engineering, Natural Substances, Cellular and Molecular Immuno-pharmacology, Immunobiology of Cancer Cells Cluster, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni-Mellal, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba.

Methods: Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs.

Results: Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Conclusion: Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of Artemisia herba alba essential oils against the PBMC.PBMC were prepared from human normal donors by Ficoll-hypaque density centrifugation. Cells were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of different essential oils (essential oil of leaves: EOL, essential oils of capitulum: EOC and essential oils of aerial parts: EOAP) at different concentrations (0, 4 μg/ml–50μg/ml). After 48 h incubation, viability was determined using MTT assay as described in materials and methods. Bar graph shows the mean percentage ± SD. *P < 0.05.
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pone.0131799.g005: Effect of Artemisia herba alba essential oils against the PBMC.PBMC were prepared from human normal donors by Ficoll-hypaque density centrifugation. Cells were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of different essential oils (essential oil of leaves: EOL, essential oils of capitulum: EOC and essential oils of aerial parts: EOAP) at different concentrations (0, 4 μg/ml–50μg/ml). After 48 h incubation, viability was determined using MTT assay as described in materials and methods. Bar graph shows the mean percentage ± SD. *P < 0.05.

Mentions: The difference in cytotoxic activity of essential oils extracted from different biological parts, indicate that cancer cell lines studied differ with respect to their sensitivity to the substances contained in the essential oils of Artemisia herba alba and the molecular characteristics of the cells as well. A study of cytotoxicity induced by different essential oils in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that these cells are more sensitive to Artemisia herba Alba, this cytotoxicity is accompanied by the induction of cytoplasmic mutation, indicating mitochondrial damage and impairment of oxidative metabolism [47]. In our study, although the essential oils of some parts of the plant not shown a cytotoxic effect against the PBMCs (EOC, and EOL), some of them demonstrate a cytotoxic effect on PBMCs (EOAP). On the other hand, the microscopic comparison of the viable cancer cells and the PBMCs treated with 50μg/mL by the essential oils from leaves and capitulum (EOC and EOL), shown after 24h lysis of tumor cell lines (70%) using the bleu trypan exclusion method. Whereas, the PBMCs don’t demonstrate the bleu coloration reflecting their viability, this observation was not shown after treatment with the EOAP which demonstrate a lysis effect toward the PBMCs (Fig 5). Moreover, Tilaoui et al, (2011) reported the cytotoxic activity of aerial part essential oil of Artemisia herba alba on CEM cancer cell lines with IC50 = 6μg/mL [40]. The cytotoxicity of Artemisia herba alba essential oils could be related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is reported that exposure to essential oils strongly affects the cell wall and membranes and damages mitochondria. This may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and to a radical burst of reactive oxygen species that triggers gene induction and apoptotic cell death [48, 49]. In fact, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to increase intracellular concentrations of DNA-damaging species such as superoxide and peroxide ions linked to apoptotic death [50, 51].


Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells.

Tilaoui M, Ait Mouse H, Jaafari A, Zyad A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of Artemisia herba alba essential oils against the PBMC.PBMC were prepared from human normal donors by Ficoll-hypaque density centrifugation. Cells were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of different essential oils (essential oil of leaves: EOL, essential oils of capitulum: EOC and essential oils of aerial parts: EOAP) at different concentrations (0, 4 μg/ml–50μg/ml). After 48 h incubation, viability was determined using MTT assay as described in materials and methods. Bar graph shows the mean percentage ± SD. *P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4510584&req=5

pone.0131799.g005: Effect of Artemisia herba alba essential oils against the PBMC.PBMC were prepared from human normal donors by Ficoll-hypaque density centrifugation. Cells were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of different essential oils (essential oil of leaves: EOL, essential oils of capitulum: EOC and essential oils of aerial parts: EOAP) at different concentrations (0, 4 μg/ml–50μg/ml). After 48 h incubation, viability was determined using MTT assay as described in materials and methods. Bar graph shows the mean percentage ± SD. *P < 0.05.
Mentions: The difference in cytotoxic activity of essential oils extracted from different biological parts, indicate that cancer cell lines studied differ with respect to their sensitivity to the substances contained in the essential oils of Artemisia herba alba and the molecular characteristics of the cells as well. A study of cytotoxicity induced by different essential oils in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that these cells are more sensitive to Artemisia herba Alba, this cytotoxicity is accompanied by the induction of cytoplasmic mutation, indicating mitochondrial damage and impairment of oxidative metabolism [47]. In our study, although the essential oils of some parts of the plant not shown a cytotoxic effect against the PBMCs (EOC, and EOL), some of them demonstrate a cytotoxic effect on PBMCs (EOAP). On the other hand, the microscopic comparison of the viable cancer cells and the PBMCs treated with 50μg/mL by the essential oils from leaves and capitulum (EOC and EOL), shown after 24h lysis of tumor cell lines (70%) using the bleu trypan exclusion method. Whereas, the PBMCs don’t demonstrate the bleu coloration reflecting their viability, this observation was not shown after treatment with the EOAP which demonstrate a lysis effect toward the PBMCs (Fig 5). Moreover, Tilaoui et al, (2011) reported the cytotoxic activity of aerial part essential oil of Artemisia herba alba on CEM cancer cell lines with IC50 = 6μg/mL [40]. The cytotoxicity of Artemisia herba alba essential oils could be related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is reported that exposure to essential oils strongly affects the cell wall and membranes and damages mitochondria. This may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and to a radical burst of reactive oxygen species that triggers gene induction and apoptotic cell death [48, 49]. In fact, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to increase intracellular concentrations of DNA-damaging species such as superoxide and peroxide ions linked to apoptotic death [50, 51].

Bottom Line: Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts.Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba.Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biological Engineering, Natural Substances, Cellular and Molecular Immuno-pharmacology, Immunobiology of Cancer Cells Cluster, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni-Mellal, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba.

Methods: Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs.

Results: Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Conclusion: Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus