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The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review.

Vahmani P, Mapiye C, Prieto N, Rolland DC, McAllister TA, Aalhus JL, Dugan ME - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health.Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates.Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C & E Trail, T4L 1 W1, Lacombe, AB Canada.

ABSTRACT
Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Major pathways for the biohydrogenation of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in the rumen showing isomerization and hydrogenation. Adapted from Harfoot and Hazlewood [39]
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Fig1: Major pathways for the biohydrogenation of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in the rumen showing isomerization and hydrogenation. Adapted from Harfoot and Hazlewood [39]

Mentions: The quantity and composition of PUFA-BHP in beef is very much dependent on the supply of PUFA in the diet, and associated dietary and animal factors (e.g., feeding behavior and rumen conditions) which influence the degree of biohydrogenation [37]. In general, pathways used for biohydrogenation of LA and ALA, the major fatty acids in typical cattle diet, are influenced by the forage to concentrate ratio [38]. The most highly characterized pathways for LA and ALA biohydrogenation were elucidated when greater proportions of forage versus concentrate were fed (Fig. 1). Pathways for both LA and ALA are characterized by initial isomerization of the cis double bond at carbon 12 to a trans double bond at carbon 11 resulting in the production of RA and cis9,trans11,cis15-18:3, respectively [39, 28]. In contrast, when feeding diets with increased amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrate (i.e., high-grain diets), isomerization of the cis 9 double bond for LA shifts towards a trans double bond at carbon 10 [28], while isomerization of the cis 12 double bond of ALA shifts towards a trans double bond at carbon 13, resulting in the production of trans10, cis12-18:2 and cis9, trans13, cis15-18:3, respectively [40]. Following this are rounds of hydrogenation and isomerization leading to trans 18:1 isomers (e.g., VA and trans13-18:1) and eventually complete hydrogenation to 18:0. However, pathways for the formation of many BHP found in Table 1 have not been established. In addition, new BHP continue to be found. For example, recently trans10, cis15-18:2 was found to be a BHP of ALA [41], adding one more piece to the puzzle of ALA biohydrogenation pathways. In addition, a great number of BHP of longer chain more highly unsaturated PUFA (e.g., DHA) have also been recently characterized [42].Fig. 1


The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review.

Vahmani P, Mapiye C, Prieto N, Rolland DC, McAllister TA, Aalhus JL, Dugan ME - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2015)

Major pathways for the biohydrogenation of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in the rumen showing isomerization and hydrogenation. Adapted from Harfoot and Hazlewood [39]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4509462&req=5

Fig1: Major pathways for the biohydrogenation of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in the rumen showing isomerization and hydrogenation. Adapted from Harfoot and Hazlewood [39]
Mentions: The quantity and composition of PUFA-BHP in beef is very much dependent on the supply of PUFA in the diet, and associated dietary and animal factors (e.g., feeding behavior and rumen conditions) which influence the degree of biohydrogenation [37]. In general, pathways used for biohydrogenation of LA and ALA, the major fatty acids in typical cattle diet, are influenced by the forage to concentrate ratio [38]. The most highly characterized pathways for LA and ALA biohydrogenation were elucidated when greater proportions of forage versus concentrate were fed (Fig. 1). Pathways for both LA and ALA are characterized by initial isomerization of the cis double bond at carbon 12 to a trans double bond at carbon 11 resulting in the production of RA and cis9,trans11,cis15-18:3, respectively [39, 28]. In contrast, when feeding diets with increased amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrate (i.e., high-grain diets), isomerization of the cis 9 double bond for LA shifts towards a trans double bond at carbon 10 [28], while isomerization of the cis 12 double bond of ALA shifts towards a trans double bond at carbon 13, resulting in the production of trans10, cis12-18:2 and cis9, trans13, cis15-18:3, respectively [40]. Following this are rounds of hydrogenation and isomerization leading to trans 18:1 isomers (e.g., VA and trans13-18:1) and eventually complete hydrogenation to 18:0. However, pathways for the formation of many BHP found in Table 1 have not been established. In addition, new BHP continue to be found. For example, recently trans10, cis15-18:2 was found to be a BHP of ALA [41], adding one more piece to the puzzle of ALA biohydrogenation pathways. In addition, a great number of BHP of longer chain more highly unsaturated PUFA (e.g., DHA) have also been recently characterized [42].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health.Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates.Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C & E Trail, T4L 1 W1, Lacombe, AB Canada.

ABSTRACT
Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus