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Different Effects of Orbital Shear Stress on Vascular Endothelial Cells: Comparison with the Results of In Vivo Study with Rats.

Kim H, Yang KH, Cho H, Gwak G, Park SC, Kim JI, Yun SS, Moon IS - Vasc Specialist Int (2015)

Bottom Line: An attempt was made to characterize the orbital shear stress by comparing the effects of orbital shear stress on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with the results of animal experiments.Orbital shear stress did not show the characteristics of a pure turbulent shear force.By comparing the observation with the morphological changes of vascular ECs and site-specific protein expression on the results of animal experiments, uniform directional lamina shear stress forces were expressed at the periphery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: An attempt was made to characterize the orbital shear stress by comparing the effects of orbital shear stress on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with the results of animal experiments.

Materials and methods: In the laboratory study, cultured ECs of well were distinguished by center and periphery then exposed to orbital shear stress using an orbital shaker. In the animal study, arteriovenous (AV) fistulas were made at the right femoral arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats to increase the effect of the laminar flow. The condition of the stenosis was given on the left femoral arteries. The protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Akt phosphorylation were observed and compared.

Results: Under orbital shear stress, ECs showed an increase in iNOS protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt but most of the protein expressions derived from the periphery. When compared to the animal study, the increased expression of iNOS protein and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in the sample of AV fistula conditions and the iNOS protein expression was decreased in the stenosis conditions.

Conclusion: Orbital shear stress did not show the characteristics of a pure turbulent shear force. By comparing the observation with the morphological changes of vascular ECs and site-specific protein expression on the results of animal experiments, uniform directional lamina shear stress forces were expressed at the periphery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram of rat model. (A) Femoro-femoral arteriovenous fistula was performed by side to side anastomosis to increase laminar shear force. (B) Black silk ligation was done on the other side of femoral artery to make turbulent flow. Patent, but sluggish distal flow was checked by palpation. Assumed blood flow is demonstrated at the bottom of the figure (boxs: specimen harvesting area).
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f1-vsi-31-33: Diagram of rat model. (A) Femoro-femoral arteriovenous fistula was performed by side to side anastomosis to increase laminar shear force. (B) Black silk ligation was done on the other side of femoral artery to make turbulent flow. Patent, but sluggish distal flow was checked by palpation. Assumed blood flow is demonstrated at the bottom of the figure (boxs: specimen harvesting area).

Mentions: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats of between 240 gm from 310 gm were housed in the appropriate environment with a standard feed (Super Feed Co., Ltd., Wonju, Korea) in the animal laboratory of The Catholic University of Korea. Induction and inhalation anesthesia was acquired by using Isoflurane. The animals were not anti-coagulated during operation. Surgery was performed with an operating microscope that had 20 magnifications to ensure the surgical field. The femoral arteries were exposed after separating of the muscle and the subcutaneous fat layer by 5–6 cm of vertical incision on both sides of the groin. On the right side of the rats, 2–3 mm sized incisions were made each in the femoral artery and vein that runs along it. Then the arteriovenous (AV) fistula was completed by side to side anastomosis with the continuous suture technique using a 10-0 prolene (Microsurgery Instrument Inc., Bellaire, TX, USA). On the left side, the arterial stenosis condition of the exposed femoral artery was induced by partial ligation with No.2 silk. Before closing the operation field, distal blood flows were checked with an ultrasonic flow probe (0.5VB Probe; Transonic System Inc., Ithaca, NY, USA). An average operation time for each rat was estimated one and half hour totally including 15 minutes of vascular stenosis procedure and about 55 minutes of AV fistula procedure (Fig. 1).


Different Effects of Orbital Shear Stress on Vascular Endothelial Cells: Comparison with the Results of In Vivo Study with Rats.

Kim H, Yang KH, Cho H, Gwak G, Park SC, Kim JI, Yun SS, Moon IS - Vasc Specialist Int (2015)

Diagram of rat model. (A) Femoro-femoral arteriovenous fistula was performed by side to side anastomosis to increase laminar shear force. (B) Black silk ligation was done on the other side of femoral artery to make turbulent flow. Patent, but sluggish distal flow was checked by palpation. Assumed blood flow is demonstrated at the bottom of the figure (boxs: specimen harvesting area).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508651&req=5

f1-vsi-31-33: Diagram of rat model. (A) Femoro-femoral arteriovenous fistula was performed by side to side anastomosis to increase laminar shear force. (B) Black silk ligation was done on the other side of femoral artery to make turbulent flow. Patent, but sluggish distal flow was checked by palpation. Assumed blood flow is demonstrated at the bottom of the figure (boxs: specimen harvesting area).
Mentions: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats of between 240 gm from 310 gm were housed in the appropriate environment with a standard feed (Super Feed Co., Ltd., Wonju, Korea) in the animal laboratory of The Catholic University of Korea. Induction and inhalation anesthesia was acquired by using Isoflurane. The animals were not anti-coagulated during operation. Surgery was performed with an operating microscope that had 20 magnifications to ensure the surgical field. The femoral arteries were exposed after separating of the muscle and the subcutaneous fat layer by 5–6 cm of vertical incision on both sides of the groin. On the right side of the rats, 2–3 mm sized incisions were made each in the femoral artery and vein that runs along it. Then the arteriovenous (AV) fistula was completed by side to side anastomosis with the continuous suture technique using a 10-0 prolene (Microsurgery Instrument Inc., Bellaire, TX, USA). On the left side, the arterial stenosis condition of the exposed femoral artery was induced by partial ligation with No.2 silk. Before closing the operation field, distal blood flows were checked with an ultrasonic flow probe (0.5VB Probe; Transonic System Inc., Ithaca, NY, USA). An average operation time for each rat was estimated one and half hour totally including 15 minutes of vascular stenosis procedure and about 55 minutes of AV fistula procedure (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: An attempt was made to characterize the orbital shear stress by comparing the effects of orbital shear stress on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with the results of animal experiments.Orbital shear stress did not show the characteristics of a pure turbulent shear force.By comparing the observation with the morphological changes of vascular ECs and site-specific protein expression on the results of animal experiments, uniform directional lamina shear stress forces were expressed at the periphery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: An attempt was made to characterize the orbital shear stress by comparing the effects of orbital shear stress on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with the results of animal experiments.

Materials and methods: In the laboratory study, cultured ECs of well were distinguished by center and periphery then exposed to orbital shear stress using an orbital shaker. In the animal study, arteriovenous (AV) fistulas were made at the right femoral arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats to increase the effect of the laminar flow. The condition of the stenosis was given on the left femoral arteries. The protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Akt phosphorylation were observed and compared.

Results: Under orbital shear stress, ECs showed an increase in iNOS protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt but most of the protein expressions derived from the periphery. When compared to the animal study, the increased expression of iNOS protein and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in the sample of AV fistula conditions and the iNOS protein expression was decreased in the stenosis conditions.

Conclusion: Orbital shear stress did not show the characteristics of a pure turbulent shear force. By comparing the observation with the morphological changes of vascular ECs and site-specific protein expression on the results of animal experiments, uniform directional lamina shear stress forces were expressed at the periphery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus