Limits...
Investigating neuronal function with optically controllable proteins.

Zhou XX, Pan M, Lin MZ - Front Mol Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: For example, neurite extension and synaptogenesis both involve localized and transient activation of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, allowing changes in microarchitecture to occur rapidly and in a localized manner.These tools have demonstrated versatility in controlling various proteins and thereby cellular functions, and possess enormous potential for future applications in nervous systems.Just as optogenetic control of neuronal firing using opsins has changed how we investigate the function of cellular circuits in vivo, optical control may yet yield another revolution in how we study the circuitry of intracellular signaling in the brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University Stanford, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In the nervous system, protein activities are highly regulated in space and time. This regulation allows for fine modulation of neuronal structure and function during development and adaptive responses. For example, neurite extension and synaptogenesis both involve localized and transient activation of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, allowing changes in microarchitecture to occur rapidly and in a localized manner. To investigate the role of specific protein regulation events in these processes, methods to optically control the activity of specific proteins have been developed. In this review, we focus on how photosensory domains enable optical control over protein activity and have been used in neuroscience applications. These tools have demonstrated versatility in controlling various proteins and thereby cellular functions, and possess enormous potential for future applications in nervous systems. Just as optogenetic control of neuronal firing using opsins has changed how we investigate the function of cellular circuits in vivo, optical control may yet yield another revolution in how we study the circuitry of intracellular signaling in the brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

UVR8 in regulation of protein export. The Ultraviolet Response 8 (UVR8) plant photoreceptor forms homodimers in the dark and dissociates into monomers upon excitation with UV-B light. A protein secretion control system conjugates tandem UVR8 tags to a protein of interest (POI). As a result, these conjugates form aggregates in the ER and remain stationary until dissociated by UV-B light.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508517&req=5

Figure 5: UVR8 in regulation of protein export. The Ultraviolet Response 8 (UVR8) plant photoreceptor forms homodimers in the dark and dissociates into monomers upon excitation with UV-B light. A protein secretion control system conjugates tandem UVR8 tags to a protein of interest (POI). As a result, these conjugates form aggregates in the ER and remain stationary until dissociated by UV-B light.

Mentions: Photodissociation of UVR8 has been used to control protein secretion in neuronal cells. Chen et al. (2013) observed that fusing tandem copies of UVR8 to secreted proteins caused sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum. A brief pulse of UV light released the high-order oligomerizing interactions and allowed cargo trafficking to the Golgi apparatus and ultimately the plasma membrane (Figure 5). Chen et al. (2013) used this approach to study local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points in neurons. Their data suggest that cargo released from the endoplasmic reticulum near branch points is preferentially trafficked to nearby dendritic Golgi membranes.


Investigating neuronal function with optically controllable proteins.

Zhou XX, Pan M, Lin MZ - Front Mol Neurosci (2015)

UVR8 in regulation of protein export. The Ultraviolet Response 8 (UVR8) plant photoreceptor forms homodimers in the dark and dissociates into monomers upon excitation with UV-B light. A protein secretion control system conjugates tandem UVR8 tags to a protein of interest (POI). As a result, these conjugates form aggregates in the ER and remain stationary until dissociated by UV-B light.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508517&req=5

Figure 5: UVR8 in regulation of protein export. The Ultraviolet Response 8 (UVR8) plant photoreceptor forms homodimers in the dark and dissociates into monomers upon excitation with UV-B light. A protein secretion control system conjugates tandem UVR8 tags to a protein of interest (POI). As a result, these conjugates form aggregates in the ER and remain stationary until dissociated by UV-B light.
Mentions: Photodissociation of UVR8 has been used to control protein secretion in neuronal cells. Chen et al. (2013) observed that fusing tandem copies of UVR8 to secreted proteins caused sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum. A brief pulse of UV light released the high-order oligomerizing interactions and allowed cargo trafficking to the Golgi apparatus and ultimately the plasma membrane (Figure 5). Chen et al. (2013) used this approach to study local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points in neurons. Their data suggest that cargo released from the endoplasmic reticulum near branch points is preferentially trafficked to nearby dendritic Golgi membranes.

Bottom Line: For example, neurite extension and synaptogenesis both involve localized and transient activation of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, allowing changes in microarchitecture to occur rapidly and in a localized manner.These tools have demonstrated versatility in controlling various proteins and thereby cellular functions, and possess enormous potential for future applications in nervous systems.Just as optogenetic control of neuronal firing using opsins has changed how we investigate the function of cellular circuits in vivo, optical control may yet yield another revolution in how we study the circuitry of intracellular signaling in the brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University Stanford, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In the nervous system, protein activities are highly regulated in space and time. This regulation allows for fine modulation of neuronal structure and function during development and adaptive responses. For example, neurite extension and synaptogenesis both involve localized and transient activation of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, allowing changes in microarchitecture to occur rapidly and in a localized manner. To investigate the role of specific protein regulation events in these processes, methods to optically control the activity of specific proteins have been developed. In this review, we focus on how photosensory domains enable optical control over protein activity and have been used in neuroscience applications. These tools have demonstrated versatility in controlling various proteins and thereby cellular functions, and possess enormous potential for future applications in nervous systems. Just as optogenetic control of neuronal firing using opsins has changed how we investigate the function of cellular circuits in vivo, optical control may yet yield another revolution in how we study the circuitry of intracellular signaling in the brain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus