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MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

Bertoli G, Cava C, Castiglioni I - Theranostics (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability.In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC.New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

miRNA biomarkers and BC hallmarks. miRNAs have a role as diagnostic miRNA, prognostic miRNAs (italics), miRNAs predictive of the BC response to therapy (*), or miRNAs with multiple functions (diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of therapy outcome; underlined). Circulating (red) and non-circulating (black) miRNAs of Table 4 are included.
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Figure 6: miRNA biomarkers and BC hallmarks. miRNAs have a role as diagnostic miRNA, prognostic miRNAs (italics), miRNAs predictive of the BC response to therapy (*), or miRNAs with multiple functions (diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of therapy outcome; underlined). Circulating (red) and non-circulating (black) miRNAs of Table 4 are included.

Mentions: We have depicted an overview of miRNAs that can already be considered as BC biomarkers. This is outlined in Table 4. We have tried to classify all circulating and non-circulating miRNAs with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive capacity in relation to their function as described in the literature. In particular, we have related them to altered pathways, the hallmarks of BC 226, generating a daisy-shaped figure (Figure 6) in which each of the petal represents one of the hallmark function altered in BC. The major group of miRNAs (27 miRNAs) affects genes belonging to the proliferation pathway, although some of these miRNAs (miR-155, miR-210, miR-21, and let7 family) are also involved in directing the BC invasion and metastatic pathways, controlled by other 24 miRNAs. Resting cell death and apoptosis are the targets of the third larger 14-miRNA group. Five miRNAs are responsible for the control of angiogenesis, whereas 2 miRNAs control genomic instability. miR-210 is the miRNA with a wider activity, being involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, and genomic instability beside the already described role in invasion and proliferation. Other miRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-27a/b, and miR-155, have been demonstrated to have multiple functions. This feature may be partially explained by the fact that the action of certain miRNAs is dependent upon the cellular model or environmental context in which they have been studied. Only 5 miRNAs have not yet been characterized in vitro for their function in BC development (miR-213, miR-299, miR-422a, miR-493, and miR-527).


MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

Bertoli G, Cava C, Castiglioni I - Theranostics (2015)

miRNA biomarkers and BC hallmarks. miRNAs have a role as diagnostic miRNA, prognostic miRNAs (italics), miRNAs predictive of the BC response to therapy (*), or miRNAs with multiple functions (diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of therapy outcome; underlined). Circulating (red) and non-circulating (black) miRNAs of Table 4 are included.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508501&req=5

Figure 6: miRNA biomarkers and BC hallmarks. miRNAs have a role as diagnostic miRNA, prognostic miRNAs (italics), miRNAs predictive of the BC response to therapy (*), or miRNAs with multiple functions (diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of therapy outcome; underlined). Circulating (red) and non-circulating (black) miRNAs of Table 4 are included.
Mentions: We have depicted an overview of miRNAs that can already be considered as BC biomarkers. This is outlined in Table 4. We have tried to classify all circulating and non-circulating miRNAs with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive capacity in relation to their function as described in the literature. In particular, we have related them to altered pathways, the hallmarks of BC 226, generating a daisy-shaped figure (Figure 6) in which each of the petal represents one of the hallmark function altered in BC. The major group of miRNAs (27 miRNAs) affects genes belonging to the proliferation pathway, although some of these miRNAs (miR-155, miR-210, miR-21, and let7 family) are also involved in directing the BC invasion and metastatic pathways, controlled by other 24 miRNAs. Resting cell death and apoptosis are the targets of the third larger 14-miRNA group. Five miRNAs are responsible for the control of angiogenesis, whereas 2 miRNAs control genomic instability. miR-210 is the miRNA with a wider activity, being involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, and genomic instability beside the already described role in invasion and proliferation. Other miRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-27a/b, and miR-155, have been demonstrated to have multiple functions. This feature may be partially explained by the fact that the action of certain miRNAs is dependent upon the cellular model or environmental context in which they have been studied. Only 5 miRNAs have not yet been characterized in vitro for their function in BC development (miR-213, miR-299, miR-422a, miR-493, and miR-527).

Bottom Line: Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability.In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC.New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus