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MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

Bertoli G, Cava C, Castiglioni I - Theranostics (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability.In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC.New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of miRNA regulatory networks in BC that promote metastasis. A) Two examples of the role of miR-10b/10b* in the regulation of either migration and invasion (left side) or cell cycle and proliferation (right side) processes. B) Example of let-7 regulatory role in the pro-invasive gene network control.
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Figure 5: Examples of miRNA regulatory networks in BC that promote metastasis. A) Two examples of the role of miR-10b/10b* in the regulation of either migration and invasion (left side) or cell cycle and proliferation (right side) processes. B) Example of let-7 regulatory role in the pro-invasive gene network control.

Mentions: Some upregulated miRNAs could cooperate in controlling a network of functional genes to help tumor development or metastasis. Figure 5 shows examples of miRNA regulatory networks in BC that promote metastasis through their ability to coordinately target multiple genes 166. Ma et al. 167 proved the role of miR-10b as a driver of metastasis: miR-10b, under the control of the TWIST transcription factor, binds HOXD10 gene, enhancing cell migration and invasion. HOXD10, in turn, inhibits the Ras homolog gene family, member C (RHOC) protein, favoring metastatic diffusion of the tumor (Figure 5A). The miR-10b locus also encodes for miR-10b*/miR10b-3p. miR-10b*, although considered functionally irrelevant, was very recently demonstrated to be important for BC insurgence and development 168. Hence, if miR-10b-5p upregulation leads to the induction of ECM remodeling factors for metastatic invasion, miR-10b-3p downregulation is involved in primary BC onset and development, as its overexpression inhibits the proliferation of BC cell lines by targeting cell cycle regulator proteins (BUB1, PLK1, and CCNA2) 168, 169 (Figure 5A).


MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

Bertoli G, Cava C, Castiglioni I - Theranostics (2015)

Examples of miRNA regulatory networks in BC that promote metastasis. A) Two examples of the role of miR-10b/10b* in the regulation of either migration and invasion (left side) or cell cycle and proliferation (right side) processes. B) Example of let-7 regulatory role in the pro-invasive gene network control.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508501&req=5

Figure 5: Examples of miRNA regulatory networks in BC that promote metastasis. A) Two examples of the role of miR-10b/10b* in the regulation of either migration and invasion (left side) or cell cycle and proliferation (right side) processes. B) Example of let-7 regulatory role in the pro-invasive gene network control.
Mentions: Some upregulated miRNAs could cooperate in controlling a network of functional genes to help tumor development or metastasis. Figure 5 shows examples of miRNA regulatory networks in BC that promote metastasis through their ability to coordinately target multiple genes 166. Ma et al. 167 proved the role of miR-10b as a driver of metastasis: miR-10b, under the control of the TWIST transcription factor, binds HOXD10 gene, enhancing cell migration and invasion. HOXD10, in turn, inhibits the Ras homolog gene family, member C (RHOC) protein, favoring metastatic diffusion of the tumor (Figure 5A). The miR-10b locus also encodes for miR-10b*/miR10b-3p. miR-10b*, although considered functionally irrelevant, was very recently demonstrated to be important for BC insurgence and development 168. Hence, if miR-10b-5p upregulation leads to the induction of ECM remodeling factors for metastatic invasion, miR-10b-3p downregulation is involved in primary BC onset and development, as its overexpression inhibits the proliferation of BC cell lines by targeting cell cycle regulator proteins (BUB1, PLK1, and CCNA2) 168, 169 (Figure 5A).

Bottom Line: Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability.In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC.New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus