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MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

Bertoli G, Cava C, Castiglioni I - Theranostics (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability.In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC.New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Altered steps in miRNA biogenesis lead to cancer. A schematic representation of altered steps of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, commonly deregulated in cancer: 1. miRNA genes contain upstream regulator elements (enhancers/repressors) and promoter regions, indicating that miRNAs are subjected to CpG methylation (CpG promoter met); 2. The alteration in the copy number of miRNA (due to genomic amplification or deletion, activating or repressing mutation, loss of epigenetic silencing and transcriptional activation) could increase the oncogenic miRNAs or decrease the tumor suppressor miRNAs; 3. Alteration in the miRNA processing machinery, i.e. downregulation of Drosha, could decrease the cropping of pri-miR to pre-miR; 4. XPO5 mutation could prevent pre-miR export to the cytoplasm; 5. Mutation of TARBP2 or downregulation of DICER1 decrease mature miRNA levels, causing finally a loss on tumor suppressor miRNAs; 6 and 7. Accumulation of oncogenic miRNAs or loss of tumor suppressor miRNAs could finally lead to cancer development.
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Figure 3: Altered steps in miRNA biogenesis lead to cancer. A schematic representation of altered steps of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, commonly deregulated in cancer: 1. miRNA genes contain upstream regulator elements (enhancers/repressors) and promoter regions, indicating that miRNAs are subjected to CpG methylation (CpG promoter met); 2. The alteration in the copy number of miRNA (due to genomic amplification or deletion, activating or repressing mutation, loss of epigenetic silencing and transcriptional activation) could increase the oncogenic miRNAs or decrease the tumor suppressor miRNAs; 3. Alteration in the miRNA processing machinery, i.e. downregulation of Drosha, could decrease the cropping of pri-miR to pre-miR; 4. XPO5 mutation could prevent pre-miR export to the cytoplasm; 5. Mutation of TARBP2 or downregulation of DICER1 decrease mature miRNA levels, causing finally a loss on tumor suppressor miRNAs; 6 and 7. Accumulation of oncogenic miRNAs or loss of tumor suppressor miRNAs could finally lead to cancer development.

Mentions: Several mechanisms can influence miRNA expression levels (Figure 3). Tumors often present altered levels of mature miRNAs 101 as a consequence of the following:


MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

Bertoli G, Cava C, Castiglioni I - Theranostics (2015)

Altered steps in miRNA biogenesis lead to cancer. A schematic representation of altered steps of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, commonly deregulated in cancer: 1. miRNA genes contain upstream regulator elements (enhancers/repressors) and promoter regions, indicating that miRNAs are subjected to CpG methylation (CpG promoter met); 2. The alteration in the copy number of miRNA (due to genomic amplification or deletion, activating or repressing mutation, loss of epigenetic silencing and transcriptional activation) could increase the oncogenic miRNAs or decrease the tumor suppressor miRNAs; 3. Alteration in the miRNA processing machinery, i.e. downregulation of Drosha, could decrease the cropping of pri-miR to pre-miR; 4. XPO5 mutation could prevent pre-miR export to the cytoplasm; 5. Mutation of TARBP2 or downregulation of DICER1 decrease mature miRNA levels, causing finally a loss on tumor suppressor miRNAs; 6 and 7. Accumulation of oncogenic miRNAs or loss of tumor suppressor miRNAs could finally lead to cancer development.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508501&req=5

Figure 3: Altered steps in miRNA biogenesis lead to cancer. A schematic representation of altered steps of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, commonly deregulated in cancer: 1. miRNA genes contain upstream regulator elements (enhancers/repressors) and promoter regions, indicating that miRNAs are subjected to CpG methylation (CpG promoter met); 2. The alteration in the copy number of miRNA (due to genomic amplification or deletion, activating or repressing mutation, loss of epigenetic silencing and transcriptional activation) could increase the oncogenic miRNAs or decrease the tumor suppressor miRNAs; 3. Alteration in the miRNA processing machinery, i.e. downregulation of Drosha, could decrease the cropping of pri-miR to pre-miR; 4. XPO5 mutation could prevent pre-miR export to the cytoplasm; 5. Mutation of TARBP2 or downregulation of DICER1 decrease mature miRNA levels, causing finally a loss on tumor suppressor miRNAs; 6 and 7. Accumulation of oncogenic miRNAs or loss of tumor suppressor miRNAs could finally lead to cancer development.
Mentions: Several mechanisms can influence miRNA expression levels (Figure 3). Tumors often present altered levels of mature miRNAs 101 as a consequence of the following:

Bottom Line: Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability.In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC.New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus