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Look together: analyzing gaze coordination with epistemic network analysis.

Andrist S, Collier W, Gleicher M, Mutlu B, Shaffer D - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice.We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows.In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

ABSTRACT
When conversing and collaborating in everyday situations, people naturally and interactively align their behaviors with each other across various communication channels, including speech, gesture, posture, and gaze. Having access to a partner's referential gaze behavior has been shown to be particularly important in achieving collaborative outcomes, but the process in which people's gaze behaviors unfold over the course of an interaction and become tightly coordinated is not well understood. In this paper, we present work to develop a deeper and more nuanced understanding of coordinated referential gaze in collaborating dyads. We recruited 13 dyads to participate in a collaborative sandwich-making task and used dual mobile eye tracking to synchronously record each participant's gaze behavior. We used a relatively new analysis technique-epistemic network analysis-to jointly model the gaze behaviors of both conversational participants. In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice. We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows. We conducted three separate analyses of the data to reveal (1) properties and patterns of how gaze coordination unfolds throughout an interaction sequence, (2) optimal time lags of gaze alignment within a dyad at different phases of the interaction, and (3) differences in gaze coordination patterns for interaction sequences that lead to breakdowns and repairs. In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

No MeSH data available.


(A) The setup of the data collection experiment in the sandwich-making task. (B) A view from one participant's eye-tracking glasses, showing their scan path throughout a reference-action sequence. (C) A timeline view of the gaze fixations to ingredients, the partner, and the bread shown in the scan path in (B).
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Figure 2: (A) The setup of the data collection experiment in the sandwich-making task. (B) A view from one participant's eye-tracking glasses, showing their scan path throughout a reference-action sequence. (C) A timeline view of the gaze fixations to ingredients, the partner, and the bread shown in the scan path in (B).

Mentions: We recruited 13 previously unacquainted dyads of participants from the University of Wisconsin–Madison campus. This data collection study was approved by the Education and Social/Behavioral Science Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Wisconsin–Madison and all participants granted their written informed consent at the beginning of the study procedure. Participants sat across from each other at a table on which were laid out a number of potential sandwich ingredients and two slices of bread (Figure 2). One participant was assigned the role of instructor, and the other was assigned the role of worker. The instructor acted as a customer at a deli counter, using verbal instructions to tell the worker what ingredients they wanted on their sandwich, and the worker carried out the actions of moving the desired ingredients to the bread.


Look together: analyzing gaze coordination with epistemic network analysis.

Andrist S, Collier W, Gleicher M, Mutlu B, Shaffer D - Front Psychol (2015)

(A) The setup of the data collection experiment in the sandwich-making task. (B) A view from one participant's eye-tracking glasses, showing their scan path throughout a reference-action sequence. (C) A timeline view of the gaze fixations to ingredients, the partner, and the bread shown in the scan path in (B).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508484&req=5

Figure 2: (A) The setup of the data collection experiment in the sandwich-making task. (B) A view from one participant's eye-tracking glasses, showing their scan path throughout a reference-action sequence. (C) A timeline view of the gaze fixations to ingredients, the partner, and the bread shown in the scan path in (B).
Mentions: We recruited 13 previously unacquainted dyads of participants from the University of Wisconsin–Madison campus. This data collection study was approved by the Education and Social/Behavioral Science Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Wisconsin–Madison and all participants granted their written informed consent at the beginning of the study procedure. Participants sat across from each other at a table on which were laid out a number of potential sandwich ingredients and two slices of bread (Figure 2). One participant was assigned the role of instructor, and the other was assigned the role of worker. The instructor acted as a customer at a deli counter, using verbal instructions to tell the worker what ingredients they wanted on their sandwich, and the worker carried out the actions of moving the desired ingredients to the bread.

Bottom Line: In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice.We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows.In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

ABSTRACT
When conversing and collaborating in everyday situations, people naturally and interactively align their behaviors with each other across various communication channels, including speech, gesture, posture, and gaze. Having access to a partner's referential gaze behavior has been shown to be particularly important in achieving collaborative outcomes, but the process in which people's gaze behaviors unfold over the course of an interaction and become tightly coordinated is not well understood. In this paper, we present work to develop a deeper and more nuanced understanding of coordinated referential gaze in collaborating dyads. We recruited 13 dyads to participate in a collaborative sandwich-making task and used dual mobile eye tracking to synchronously record each participant's gaze behavior. We used a relatively new analysis technique-epistemic network analysis-to jointly model the gaze behaviors of both conversational participants. In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice. We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows. We conducted three separate analyses of the data to reveal (1) properties and patterns of how gaze coordination unfolds throughout an interaction sequence, (2) optimal time lags of gaze alignment within a dyad at different phases of the interaction, and (3) differences in gaze coordination patterns for interaction sequences that lead to breakdowns and repairs. In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

No MeSH data available.