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Auricular Acupressure Can Modulate Pain Threshold.

Santoro A, Nori SL, Lorusso L, Secondulfo C, Monda M, Viggiano A - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck.Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment.This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The objective of our study was to investigate if auriculotherapy (AT) can modulate pain threshold. In our experiments, AT consisted of placing Vaccaria seeds over the "fingers point" of one ear. Two groups of healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Each subject was asked to perform an autoalgometric test developed by our group on three occasions: before, 1 hour after, AT and 24 hours after AT. Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck. The autoalgometric test consisted of applying an increasing pressure with the finger-tips and finger-backs of four fingers by the subjects themselves (i.e., eight sites were evaluated) against a round-shaped needle for two times: until a minimum pain sensation (first time, minimal test) or a maximally tolerable pain sensation (second time, maximal test). Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment. This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The autoalgometer. The device consisted of a round metal tip of 1 mm in diameter (a) fixed to a load-cell (b). The digital reading of the force applied to the metal tip was transmitted to a PC through a USB link (c).
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fig1: The autoalgometer. The device consisted of a round metal tip of 1 mm in diameter (a) fixed to a load-cell (b). The digital reading of the force applied to the metal tip was transmitted to a PC through a USB link (c).

Mentions: Pain threshold was evaluated by using an autoalgometer. The autoalgometer is a pressure detector (pressure gage device) put in a small box of this size: 5.7 cm × 10.4 cm × 10.6 cm (Figure 1). In the back side of the box there is a USB port that links the device to a PC. On the top of the box there is a metal needle of 1.0 mm in diameter fixed to a force transducer (cell load). After the driver has been installed, custom software takes force readings (10 samples/sec) and saves them for subsequent analysis. Before the experiment was conducted, to evaluate the pain threshold, people were instructed to apply a gradually increasing pressure on the metal tip with their finger-tips or finger-backs until they felt a sensation that they would describe as the “minimal pain intensity that is possible to feel”; then they took off the finger from the metal tip. The software recorded the pressure applied to the metal tip all over the time of the test with a sampling frequency of 10 samples/sec; thus, the maximal value reached during the test was defined as the pain threshold. For each subject, the mean value from eight autoalgometric tests performed on eight different points was evaluated and considered for subsequent analysis; these points were the tip and the back of the second, third, fourth, and fifth fingers. After completing these 8 “minimal tests,” the participants performed 8 more “maximal” tests, repeating the same procedure, as before, but increasing, this time, the pressure over the metal tip until they felt a sensation that they would describe as the “maximal intensity of pain they would tolerate.” Thus, also the mean value of these 8 maximal tests was considered for subsequent analyses. In summary, each autoalgometric examination yielded two variables: a minimal pain threshold (the mean value from 8 minimal tests) and a maximal pain threshold (the mean value from 8 maximal tests).


Auricular Acupressure Can Modulate Pain Threshold.

Santoro A, Nori SL, Lorusso L, Secondulfo C, Monda M, Viggiano A - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

The autoalgometer. The device consisted of a round metal tip of 1 mm in diameter (a) fixed to a load-cell (b). The digital reading of the force applied to the metal tip was transmitted to a PC through a USB link (c).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508478&req=5

fig1: The autoalgometer. The device consisted of a round metal tip of 1 mm in diameter (a) fixed to a load-cell (b). The digital reading of the force applied to the metal tip was transmitted to a PC through a USB link (c).
Mentions: Pain threshold was evaluated by using an autoalgometer. The autoalgometer is a pressure detector (pressure gage device) put in a small box of this size: 5.7 cm × 10.4 cm × 10.6 cm (Figure 1). In the back side of the box there is a USB port that links the device to a PC. On the top of the box there is a metal needle of 1.0 mm in diameter fixed to a force transducer (cell load). After the driver has been installed, custom software takes force readings (10 samples/sec) and saves them for subsequent analysis. Before the experiment was conducted, to evaluate the pain threshold, people were instructed to apply a gradually increasing pressure on the metal tip with their finger-tips or finger-backs until they felt a sensation that they would describe as the “minimal pain intensity that is possible to feel”; then they took off the finger from the metal tip. The software recorded the pressure applied to the metal tip all over the time of the test with a sampling frequency of 10 samples/sec; thus, the maximal value reached during the test was defined as the pain threshold. For each subject, the mean value from eight autoalgometric tests performed on eight different points was evaluated and considered for subsequent analysis; these points were the tip and the back of the second, third, fourth, and fifth fingers. After completing these 8 “minimal tests,” the participants performed 8 more “maximal” tests, repeating the same procedure, as before, but increasing, this time, the pressure over the metal tip until they felt a sensation that they would describe as the “maximal intensity of pain they would tolerate.” Thus, also the mean value of these 8 maximal tests was considered for subsequent analyses. In summary, each autoalgometric examination yielded two variables: a minimal pain threshold (the mean value from 8 minimal tests) and a maximal pain threshold (the mean value from 8 maximal tests).

Bottom Line: Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck.Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment.This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The objective of our study was to investigate if auriculotherapy (AT) can modulate pain threshold. In our experiments, AT consisted of placing Vaccaria seeds over the "fingers point" of one ear. Two groups of healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Each subject was asked to perform an autoalgometric test developed by our group on three occasions: before, 1 hour after, AT and 24 hours after AT. Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck. The autoalgometric test consisted of applying an increasing pressure with the finger-tips and finger-backs of four fingers by the subjects themselves (i.e., eight sites were evaluated) against a round-shaped needle for two times: until a minimum pain sensation (first time, minimal test) or a maximally tolerable pain sensation (second time, maximal test). Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment. This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus