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GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration.

Pickart L, Vasquez-Soltero JM, Margolina A - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: In cosmetic products, it has been found to tighten loose skin and improve elasticity, skin density, and firmness, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce photodamage, and hyperpigmentation, and increase keratinocyte proliferation.GHK has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and metastatic colon cancer.It is capable of up- and downregulating at least 4,000 human genes, essentially resetting DNA to a healthier state.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Skin Biology, Research & Development Department, 4122 Factoria Boulevard, SE Suite No. 200 Bellevue, WA 98006, USA.

ABSTRACT
GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is present in human plasma, saliva, and urine but declines with age. It is proposed that GHK functions as a complex with copper 2+ which accelerates wound healing and skin repair. GHK stimulates both synthesis and breakdown of collagen and glycosaminoglycans and modulates the activity of both metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. It stimulates collagen, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and the small proteoglycan, decorin. It also restores replicative vitality to fibroblasts after radiation therapy. The molecule attracts immune and endothelial cells to the site of an injury. It accelerates wound-healing of the skin, hair follicles, gastrointestinal tract, boney tissue, and foot pads of dogs. It also induces systemic wound healing in rats, mice, and pigs. In cosmetic products, it has been found to tighten loose skin and improve elasticity, skin density, and firmness, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce photodamage, and hyperpigmentation, and increase keratinocyte proliferation. GHK has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and metastatic colon cancer. It is capable of up- and downregulating at least 4,000 human genes, essentially resetting DNA to a healthier state. The present review revisits GHK's role in skin regeneration in the light of recent discoveries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular crystal structure of the tripeptide GHK-Cu. In solution, lysine carboxyl groups of neighboring complexes may participate in a complex formation.
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fig1: Molecular crystal structure of the tripeptide GHK-Cu. In solution, lysine carboxyl groups of neighboring complexes may participate in a complex formation.

Mentions: The molecular structure of the GHK copper complex (GHK-Cu) has been extensively studied using X-ray crystallography, EPR spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and PMR spectroscopy as well as other methods such as titration. In the GHK-Cu complex, the Cu (II) ion is coordinated by the nitrogen from the imidazole side chain of the histidine, another nitrogen from the alpha-amino group of glycine, and the deprotonated amide nitrogen of the glycine-histidine peptide bond (Figure 1).


GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration.

Pickart L, Vasquez-Soltero JM, Margolina A - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Molecular crystal structure of the tripeptide GHK-Cu. In solution, lysine carboxyl groups of neighboring complexes may participate in a complex formation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508379&req=5

fig1: Molecular crystal structure of the tripeptide GHK-Cu. In solution, lysine carboxyl groups of neighboring complexes may participate in a complex formation.
Mentions: The molecular structure of the GHK copper complex (GHK-Cu) has been extensively studied using X-ray crystallography, EPR spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and PMR spectroscopy as well as other methods such as titration. In the GHK-Cu complex, the Cu (II) ion is coordinated by the nitrogen from the imidazole side chain of the histidine, another nitrogen from the alpha-amino group of glycine, and the deprotonated amide nitrogen of the glycine-histidine peptide bond (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: In cosmetic products, it has been found to tighten loose skin and improve elasticity, skin density, and firmness, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce photodamage, and hyperpigmentation, and increase keratinocyte proliferation.GHK has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and metastatic colon cancer.It is capable of up- and downregulating at least 4,000 human genes, essentially resetting DNA to a healthier state.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Skin Biology, Research & Development Department, 4122 Factoria Boulevard, SE Suite No. 200 Bellevue, WA 98006, USA.

ABSTRACT
GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is present in human plasma, saliva, and urine but declines with age. It is proposed that GHK functions as a complex with copper 2+ which accelerates wound healing and skin repair. GHK stimulates both synthesis and breakdown of collagen and glycosaminoglycans and modulates the activity of both metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. It stimulates collagen, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and the small proteoglycan, decorin. It also restores replicative vitality to fibroblasts after radiation therapy. The molecule attracts immune and endothelial cells to the site of an injury. It accelerates wound-healing of the skin, hair follicles, gastrointestinal tract, boney tissue, and foot pads of dogs. It also induces systemic wound healing in rats, mice, and pigs. In cosmetic products, it has been found to tighten loose skin and improve elasticity, skin density, and firmness, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce photodamage, and hyperpigmentation, and increase keratinocyte proliferation. GHK has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and metastatic colon cancer. It is capable of up- and downregulating at least 4,000 human genes, essentially resetting DNA to a healthier state. The present review revisits GHK's role in skin regeneration in the light of recent discoveries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus