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Applying refinement to the use of mice and rats in rheumatoid arthritis research.

Hawkins P, Armstrong R, Boden T, Garside P, Knight K, Lilley E, Seed M, Wilkinson M, Williams RO - Inflammopharmacology (2015)

Bottom Line: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients.The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress.This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Animals Department, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex, RH13 9RS, UK, penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients. The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress. This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives. The report also discusses other, relevant topics including identifying and minimising sources of variation within in vivo RA studies, the potential to provide pain relief including analgesia, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, reporting standards and the potential to replace animals in RA research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Appearance of mouse front paws with progressively severe CIA arthritis. In this example scheme, 0 normal, 1 digits swollen, 2 digits and pad swollen, 3 wrist/ankle, pad and digits swollen. (Courtesy Remi Okoye, Alex Vugler; UCB Celltech)
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Fig4: Appearance of mouse front paws with progressively severe CIA arthritis. In this example scheme, 0 normal, 1 digits swollen, 2 digits and pad swollen, 3 wrist/ankle, pad and digits swollen. (Courtesy Remi Okoye, Alex Vugler; UCB Celltech)

Mentions: In mice, distinguishing individual joints is difficult without handling animals and touching the paws. However, in the authors’ experience an assessment system for mice in which whole paws are scored (Fig. 4) was as robust as a protocol that scored individual digits and joints (see “Appendix”). ‘Global’ scores for each paw, tailored to individual projects, can therefore be used for mice, avoiding handling.Fig. 4


Applying refinement to the use of mice and rats in rheumatoid arthritis research.

Hawkins P, Armstrong R, Boden T, Garside P, Knight K, Lilley E, Seed M, Wilkinson M, Williams RO - Inflammopharmacology (2015)

Appearance of mouse front paws with progressively severe CIA arthritis. In this example scheme, 0 normal, 1 digits swollen, 2 digits and pad swollen, 3 wrist/ankle, pad and digits swollen. (Courtesy Remi Okoye, Alex Vugler; UCB Celltech)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508365&req=5

Fig4: Appearance of mouse front paws with progressively severe CIA arthritis. In this example scheme, 0 normal, 1 digits swollen, 2 digits and pad swollen, 3 wrist/ankle, pad and digits swollen. (Courtesy Remi Okoye, Alex Vugler; UCB Celltech)
Mentions: In mice, distinguishing individual joints is difficult without handling animals and touching the paws. However, in the authors’ experience an assessment system for mice in which whole paws are scored (Fig. 4) was as robust as a protocol that scored individual digits and joints (see “Appendix”). ‘Global’ scores for each paw, tailored to individual projects, can therefore be used for mice, avoiding handling.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients.The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress.This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Animals Department, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex, RH13 9RS, UK, penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients. The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress. This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives. The report also discusses other, relevant topics including identifying and minimising sources of variation within in vivo RA studies, the potential to provide pain relief including analgesia, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, reporting standards and the potential to replace animals in RA research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus