Limits...
Applying refinement to the use of mice and rats in rheumatoid arthritis research.

Hawkins P, Armstrong R, Boden T, Garside P, Knight K, Lilley E, Seed M, Wilkinson M, Williams RO - Inflammopharmacology (2015)

Bottom Line: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients.The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress.This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Animals Department, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex, RH13 9RS, UK, penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients. The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress. This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives. The report also discusses other, relevant topics including identifying and minimising sources of variation within in vivo RA studies, the potential to provide pain relief including analgesia, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, reporting standards and the potential to replace animals in RA research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Appearance of rat hind paws with arthritis following different doses of pristane. a Note swelling, redness and start of skin lesions. b Ankylosis at the chronic phase; histology shows active inflammation. The animals shown in a and b reached the humane endpoint and were humanely killed. c Well managed arthritis. The development of severe arthritis with lesions, as in a, is not required as power can be maintained with lower doses of pristane as in c, also reducing variability. (Courtesy M. Seed, University of East London)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508365&req=5

Fig2: Appearance of rat hind paws with arthritis following different doses of pristane. a Note swelling, redness and start of skin lesions. b Ankylosis at the chronic phase; histology shows active inflammation. The animals shown in a and b reached the humane endpoint and were humanely killed. c Well managed arthritis. The development of severe arthritis with lesions, as in a, is not required as power can be maintained with lower doses of pristane as in c, also reducing variability. (Courtesy M. Seed, University of East London)

Mentions: Animals should be very gently caught and handled, and paws checked daily, from around day 14 following the initial induction (or from the point of inflammation). The digits and joints should be examined, and if there is swelling it should be noted how high up the limb this is present. Swelling may be measured with (preferably non-spring) callipers or by plethysmometry, as swollen paws are painful (Bolon et al. 2011) (Fig. 1). Swollen paws and digits may also be accompanied by reddening of the skin (Fig. 2).Fig. 1


Applying refinement to the use of mice and rats in rheumatoid arthritis research.

Hawkins P, Armstrong R, Boden T, Garside P, Knight K, Lilley E, Seed M, Wilkinson M, Williams RO - Inflammopharmacology (2015)

Appearance of rat hind paws with arthritis following different doses of pristane. a Note swelling, redness and start of skin lesions. b Ankylosis at the chronic phase; histology shows active inflammation. The animals shown in a and b reached the humane endpoint and were humanely killed. c Well managed arthritis. The development of severe arthritis with lesions, as in a, is not required as power can be maintained with lower doses of pristane as in c, also reducing variability. (Courtesy M. Seed, University of East London)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508365&req=5

Fig2: Appearance of rat hind paws with arthritis following different doses of pristane. a Note swelling, redness and start of skin lesions. b Ankylosis at the chronic phase; histology shows active inflammation. The animals shown in a and b reached the humane endpoint and were humanely killed. c Well managed arthritis. The development of severe arthritis with lesions, as in a, is not required as power can be maintained with lower doses of pristane as in c, also reducing variability. (Courtesy M. Seed, University of East London)
Mentions: Animals should be very gently caught and handled, and paws checked daily, from around day 14 following the initial induction (or from the point of inflammation). The digits and joints should be examined, and if there is swelling it should be noted how high up the limb this is present. Swelling may be measured with (preferably non-spring) callipers or by plethysmometry, as swollen paws are painful (Bolon et al. 2011) (Fig. 1). Swollen paws and digits may also be accompanied by reddening of the skin (Fig. 2).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients.The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress.This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Animals Department, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex, RH13 9RS, UK, penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients. The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress. This Working Group report focuses on identifying causes of suffering within commonly used mouse and rat 'models' of RA, describing practical refinements to help reduce suffering and improve welfare without compromising the scientific objectives. The report also discusses other, relevant topics including identifying and minimising sources of variation within in vivo RA studies, the potential to provide pain relief including analgesia, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, reporting standards and the potential to replace animals in RA research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus