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The effect of positive mood induction on reducing reinstatement fear: Relevance for long term outcomes of exposure therapy.

Zbozinek TD, Holmes EA, Craske MG - Behav Res Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: Though the conditional response (CR; e.g., fear) typically reduces during extinction, the excitatory conditional stimulus (CS+) valence remains negative.The current study evaluated the degree to which positive mood induction (positive imagery training; PIT) compared to control (positive verbal training; PVT) before extinction a) decreased CS+ negative valence during extinction and b) reduced reinstatement fear.Results suggest that increasing positive affect prior to exposure therapy could reduce relapse through reinstatement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. Electronic address: tzbozinek@ucla.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of PIT and PVT Mood Induction on CS+ and CS− Valence. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training; CS+ is the conditional stimulus associated with the unconditional stimulus (US; during acquisition only); CS− is associated with the absence of the US. CS valence was measured on a 1–7 scale, where 1 = “Very negative,” 4 = “Neutral,” and 7 = “Very positive.”
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fig2: Effect of PIT and PVT Mood Induction on CS+ and CS− Valence. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training; CS+ is the conditional stimulus associated with the unconditional stimulus (US; during acquisition only); CS− is associated with the absence of the US. CS valence was measured on a 1–7 scale, where 1 = “Very negative,” 4 = “Neutral,” and 7 = “Very positive.”

Mentions: The hypothesis that PIT would decrease CS+ negative valence more than PVT was analyzed using Training Group (PIT, PVT) × CS (CS+, CS−) × Time (Post-Acquisition, Post-Extinction) mixed models with self-report CS valence as the dependent variable. The three-way Training Group (PIT, PVT) × CS (CS+, CS−) × Time (Post-Acquisition, Post-Extinction) interaction was significant, (χ2(1) = 4.29, p = .04. f2 = 0.01; see Fig. 2). For CS+, the Training Group × Time interaction was significant, (χ2(1) = 6.04, p = .01). Simple main effects showed that, for PIT, CS+ valence significantly increased from post-acquisition (M = 2.41, SD = 1.94) to post-extinction (M = 3.98, SD = 1.45), (χ2(1) = 45.95, p < .01). The same pattern occurred for PVT (M = 3.02, SD = 1.89; M = 3.79, SD = 1.42), (χ2(1) = 11.63, p < .01). Post-acquisition CS+ valence was subtracted from post-extinction CS+ valence; more positive values represent greater increases in CS+ valence. Critically, an independent samples t-test showed that PIT (M = 1.57, SD = 1.24) increased CS+ valence significantly more than PVT (M = 0.77, SD = 1.59), (t(92) = 2.70, p < .01, d = 0.56). The Training Group × Time interaction was not significant for the CS− (χ2(1) = 0.22, p = .64). In sum, as predicted, PIT increased CS+ valence significantly more than PVT, whereas there was no difference between PIT and PVT for the CS−.


The effect of positive mood induction on reducing reinstatement fear: Relevance for long term outcomes of exposure therapy.

Zbozinek TD, Holmes EA, Craske MG - Behav Res Ther (2015)

Effect of PIT and PVT Mood Induction on CS+ and CS− Valence. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training; CS+ is the conditional stimulus associated with the unconditional stimulus (US; during acquisition only); CS− is associated with the absence of the US. CS valence was measured on a 1–7 scale, where 1 = “Very negative,” 4 = “Neutral,” and 7 = “Very positive.”
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508344&req=5

fig2: Effect of PIT and PVT Mood Induction on CS+ and CS− Valence. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training; CS+ is the conditional stimulus associated with the unconditional stimulus (US; during acquisition only); CS− is associated with the absence of the US. CS valence was measured on a 1–7 scale, where 1 = “Very negative,” 4 = “Neutral,” and 7 = “Very positive.”
Mentions: The hypothesis that PIT would decrease CS+ negative valence more than PVT was analyzed using Training Group (PIT, PVT) × CS (CS+, CS−) × Time (Post-Acquisition, Post-Extinction) mixed models with self-report CS valence as the dependent variable. The three-way Training Group (PIT, PVT) × CS (CS+, CS−) × Time (Post-Acquisition, Post-Extinction) interaction was significant, (χ2(1) = 4.29, p = .04. f2 = 0.01; see Fig. 2). For CS+, the Training Group × Time interaction was significant, (χ2(1) = 6.04, p = .01). Simple main effects showed that, for PIT, CS+ valence significantly increased from post-acquisition (M = 2.41, SD = 1.94) to post-extinction (M = 3.98, SD = 1.45), (χ2(1) = 45.95, p < .01). The same pattern occurred for PVT (M = 3.02, SD = 1.89; M = 3.79, SD = 1.42), (χ2(1) = 11.63, p < .01). Post-acquisition CS+ valence was subtracted from post-extinction CS+ valence; more positive values represent greater increases in CS+ valence. Critically, an independent samples t-test showed that PIT (M = 1.57, SD = 1.24) increased CS+ valence significantly more than PVT (M = 0.77, SD = 1.59), (t(92) = 2.70, p < .01, d = 0.56). The Training Group × Time interaction was not significant for the CS− (χ2(1) = 0.22, p = .64). In sum, as predicted, PIT increased CS+ valence significantly more than PVT, whereas there was no difference between PIT and PVT for the CS−.

Bottom Line: Though the conditional response (CR; e.g., fear) typically reduces during extinction, the excitatory conditional stimulus (CS+) valence remains negative.The current study evaluated the degree to which positive mood induction (positive imagery training; PIT) compared to control (positive verbal training; PVT) before extinction a) decreased CS+ negative valence during extinction and b) reduced reinstatement fear.Results suggest that increasing positive affect prior to exposure therapy could reduce relapse through reinstatement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. Electronic address: tzbozinek@ucla.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus