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The effect of positive mood induction on reducing reinstatement fear: Relevance for long term outcomes of exposure therapy.

Zbozinek TD, Holmes EA, Craske MG - Behav Res Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: Though the conditional response (CR; e.g., fear) typically reduces during extinction, the excitatory conditional stimulus (CS+) valence remains negative.The current study evaluated the degree to which positive mood induction (positive imagery training; PIT) compared to control (positive verbal training; PVT) before extinction a) decreased CS+ negative valence during extinction and b) reduced reinstatement fear.Results suggest that increasing positive affect prior to exposure therapy could reduce relapse through reinstatement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. Electronic address: tzbozinek@ucla.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of PIT and PVT on Positive Affect from Before to After Training. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training. Positive affect was measured on a 1–5 scale using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) with higher numbers indicating more positive affect.
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fig1: Effect of PIT and PVT on Positive Affect from Before to After Training. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training. Positive affect was measured on a 1–5 scale using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) with higher numbers indicating more positive affect.

Mentions: The hypothesis that PIT would increase positive affect relative to PVT was analyzed using Training Group (PIT, PVT) × Time (Pre-Training, Post-Training) mixed models with positive affect as the dependent variable. The Training Group (PIT, PVT) × Time (Pre-Training, Post-Training) interaction was significant (χ2(1) = 7.86, p < .01, f2 = 0.08; see Fig. 1). For PIT, positive affect (i.e., PANAS positive subscale) did not significantly change from pre-training (M = 2.56, SD = 1.04) to post-training (M = 2.72, SD = 1.36), (χ2(1) = 2.22, p = .14). However, for PVT, positive affect significantly decreased from pre-training (M = 2.52, SD = 1.01) to post-training (M = 2.27, SD = 1.31), (χ2(1) = 6.20, p = .01). At pre-training, positive affect did not differ between PIT and PVT (χ2(1) = 0.01, p = .91), whereas at post-training, critically we found that positive affect was significantly higher for PIT than PVT (χ2(1) = 5.06, p = .02). In sum, PVT decreased in positive affect, and PIT had higher positive affect than PVT after training (i.e., before extinction).


The effect of positive mood induction on reducing reinstatement fear: Relevance for long term outcomes of exposure therapy.

Zbozinek TD, Holmes EA, Craske MG - Behav Res Ther (2015)

Effect of PIT and PVT on Positive Affect from Before to After Training. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training. Positive affect was measured on a 1–5 scale using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) with higher numbers indicating more positive affect.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4508344&req=5

fig1: Effect of PIT and PVT on Positive Affect from Before to After Training. PIT = positive imagery training; PVT = positive verbal training. Positive affect was measured on a 1–5 scale using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) with higher numbers indicating more positive affect.
Mentions: The hypothesis that PIT would increase positive affect relative to PVT was analyzed using Training Group (PIT, PVT) × Time (Pre-Training, Post-Training) mixed models with positive affect as the dependent variable. The Training Group (PIT, PVT) × Time (Pre-Training, Post-Training) interaction was significant (χ2(1) = 7.86, p < .01, f2 = 0.08; see Fig. 1). For PIT, positive affect (i.e., PANAS positive subscale) did not significantly change from pre-training (M = 2.56, SD = 1.04) to post-training (M = 2.72, SD = 1.36), (χ2(1) = 2.22, p = .14). However, for PVT, positive affect significantly decreased from pre-training (M = 2.52, SD = 1.01) to post-training (M = 2.27, SD = 1.31), (χ2(1) = 6.20, p = .01). At pre-training, positive affect did not differ between PIT and PVT (χ2(1) = 0.01, p = .91), whereas at post-training, critically we found that positive affect was significantly higher for PIT than PVT (χ2(1) = 5.06, p = .02). In sum, PVT decreased in positive affect, and PIT had higher positive affect than PVT after training (i.e., before extinction).

Bottom Line: Though the conditional response (CR; e.g., fear) typically reduces during extinction, the excitatory conditional stimulus (CS+) valence remains negative.The current study evaluated the degree to which positive mood induction (positive imagery training; PIT) compared to control (positive verbal training; PVT) before extinction a) decreased CS+ negative valence during extinction and b) reduced reinstatement fear.Results suggest that increasing positive affect prior to exposure therapy could reduce relapse through reinstatement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. Electronic address: tzbozinek@ucla.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus