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Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

Clifton EH, Jaronski ST, Hodgson EW, Gassmann AJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins.A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF.Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Abundance of colony forming units (CFUs) of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. in soil.Bar heights are sample means and error bars are the standard error of the mean.
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pone.0133613.g003: Abundance of colony forming units (CFUs) of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. in soil.Bar heights are sample means and error bars are the standard error of the mean.

Mentions: Based on mortality of G. mellonella from EPF, there was significantly greater occurrence of EPF in organically farmed soil than conventionally farmed soil in 2011 (Fig 2; Table 1). However, in 2012 no statistically significant differences were detected (Table 1). Additionally, in 2011, abundance of M. anisopliae s.l. CFUs in organic agroecosystems was significantly higher than conventional agroecosystems (Fig 3; Table 2). However, no significant differences were detected in 2012 (Table 2).


Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

Clifton EH, Jaronski ST, Hodgson EW, Gassmann AJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Abundance of colony forming units (CFUs) of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. in soil.Bar heights are sample means and error bars are the standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507996&req=5

pone.0133613.g003: Abundance of colony forming units (CFUs) of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. in soil.Bar heights are sample means and error bars are the standard error of the mean.
Mentions: Based on mortality of G. mellonella from EPF, there was significantly greater occurrence of EPF in organically farmed soil than conventionally farmed soil in 2011 (Fig 2; Table 1). However, in 2012 no statistically significant differences were detected (Table 1). Additionally, in 2011, abundance of M. anisopliae s.l. CFUs in organic agroecosystems was significantly higher than conventional agroecosystems (Fig 3; Table 2). However, no significant differences were detected in 2012 (Table 2).

Bottom Line: In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins.A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF.Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus