Limits...
A Large Scale Test of the Effect of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior.

Korndörfer M, Egloff B, Schmukle SC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations.Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1-3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4-6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals.Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1-3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4-6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The positive effect of social class on everyday helping behavior in the American General Social Survey (Study 7).Panel A shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per decile of objective social class. Panel B illustrates a LOESS curve (local least squares fitting) for the scale value of the everyday helping scale by standardized objective social class (N = 3,902). Panel C (N = 3,886 persons) shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per category of subjective social class. Panel D illustrates the predicted scale values for the everyday helping scale determined via OLS regression. It distinguishes between a curve for subjective social class and a curve for objective social class.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507988&req=5

pone.0133193.g010: The positive effect of social class on everyday helping behavior in the American General Social Survey (Study 7).Panel A shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per decile of objective social class. Panel B illustrates a LOESS curve (local least squares fitting) for the scale value of the everyday helping scale by standardized objective social class (N = 3,902). Panel C (N = 3,886 persons) shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per category of subjective social class. Panel D illustrates the predicted scale values for the everyday helping scale determined via OLS regression. It distinguishes between a curve for subjective social class and a curve for objective social class.

Mentions: Fig 10A shows an increase in the mean score of everyday helping with elevated deciles of social class up to the sixth decile. From that point on, the mean scale value increased and decreased with each subsequent decile. This tendency was also reflected in the applied local regression (Fig 10B). The curve rose until the end of the first half of the objective social class distribution and stayed straight in the second half. However, the regression analysis revealed a plain positive linear effect of objective social class on everyday helping (Table 7, Model 1; see the solid line in Fig 10D for the predicted values from the OLS regression). Yet this was most likely caused by the integration of the covariates age and sex in our analysis. When the analysis was conducted without those covariates, we found the graphically displayed positive effect of objective social class on everyday helping that attenuated with elevated social class (objective social class: b = .406, t = 4.74, p < .001; objective social class2: b = -.147, t = -2.06, p < .05).


A Large Scale Test of the Effect of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior.

Korndörfer M, Egloff B, Schmukle SC - PLoS ONE (2015)

The positive effect of social class on everyday helping behavior in the American General Social Survey (Study 7).Panel A shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per decile of objective social class. Panel B illustrates a LOESS curve (local least squares fitting) for the scale value of the everyday helping scale by standardized objective social class (N = 3,902). Panel C (N = 3,886 persons) shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per category of subjective social class. Panel D illustrates the predicted scale values for the everyday helping scale determined via OLS regression. It distinguishes between a curve for subjective social class and a curve for objective social class.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507988&req=5

pone.0133193.g010: The positive effect of social class on everyday helping behavior in the American General Social Survey (Study 7).Panel A shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per decile of objective social class. Panel B illustrates a LOESS curve (local least squares fitting) for the scale value of the everyday helping scale by standardized objective social class (N = 3,902). Panel C (N = 3,886 persons) shows the mean scale value of the everyday helping scale per category of subjective social class. Panel D illustrates the predicted scale values for the everyday helping scale determined via OLS regression. It distinguishes between a curve for subjective social class and a curve for objective social class.
Mentions: Fig 10A shows an increase in the mean score of everyday helping with elevated deciles of social class up to the sixth decile. From that point on, the mean scale value increased and decreased with each subsequent decile. This tendency was also reflected in the applied local regression (Fig 10B). The curve rose until the end of the first half of the objective social class distribution and stayed straight in the second half. However, the regression analysis revealed a plain positive linear effect of objective social class on everyday helping (Table 7, Model 1; see the solid line in Fig 10D for the predicted values from the OLS regression). Yet this was most likely caused by the integration of the covariates age and sex in our analysis. When the analysis was conducted without those covariates, we found the graphically displayed positive effect of objective social class on everyday helping that attenuated with elevated social class (objective social class: b = .406, t = 4.74, p < .001; objective social class2: b = -.147, t = -2.06, p < .05).

Bottom Line: However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations.Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1-3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4-6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals.Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1-3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4-6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus