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Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

Küpers LK, L'Abée C, Bocca G, Stolk RP, Sauer PJ, Corpeleijn E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%).Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life.After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.

Methods: In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education) were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.

Results: Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%).

Conclusion: Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-scores, stratified for parity (A-B), smoking (C-D), gestational weight gain (E-F) and diabetes (pre-existing and gestational) (G-H).
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pone.0133326.g002: Mean weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-scores, stratified for parity (A-B), smoking (C-D), gestational weight gain (E-F) and diabetes (pre-existing and gestational) (G-H).

Mentions: From one to six months, a higher gestational age, higher birth weight and female gender were all associated with a decline in weight-for-age Z-score (Table 4). Furthermore, a higher birth weight was associated with a decline in weight-for-length Z-score (Table 5). For hypothesis-generating purposes and to facilitate the interpretation of the results, the crude, unadjusted patterns for the Z-scores over time of all variables are shown in Figs 1 and 2 and S1–S4 Figs. Breastfed infants showed a rapid increase in weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-score in the first month of life and a decrease between 1–6 months, while formula fed infants showed a continuous increase in weight-for-age Z-score during the first six months (Fig 1). At six months, formula fed infants had a higher weight-for-age Z-score and weight-for-length Z-score compared to breastfed infants (Tables 4 and 5, Fig 1C and 1D). In the lowest birth weight quartile we observed a similar growth pattern: a quick weight gain for breast fed infants and a slower weight gain for formula fed infants (data not shown). In this period, multiparity was also associated with a decline in weight-for-age Z-score and weight-for-length Z-score (Tables 4 and 5, Fig 2A and 2B). From one to six months the prenatal domain was most important to explain differences in weight gain. It explained 26.6% of the changes in weight-for-age Z-score and 3.7% for weight-for-length Z-score (Table 3). This was followed by the nutrition domain, which explained 10.7% of variation in weight-for-age Z-score and 2.8% for weight-for-length Z-score changes over time.


Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

Küpers LK, L'Abée C, Bocca G, Stolk RP, Sauer PJ, Corpeleijn E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-scores, stratified for parity (A-B), smoking (C-D), gestational weight gain (E-F) and diabetes (pre-existing and gestational) (G-H).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507980&req=5

pone.0133326.g002: Mean weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-scores, stratified for parity (A-B), smoking (C-D), gestational weight gain (E-F) and diabetes (pre-existing and gestational) (G-H).
Mentions: From one to six months, a higher gestational age, higher birth weight and female gender were all associated with a decline in weight-for-age Z-score (Table 4). Furthermore, a higher birth weight was associated with a decline in weight-for-length Z-score (Table 5). For hypothesis-generating purposes and to facilitate the interpretation of the results, the crude, unadjusted patterns for the Z-scores over time of all variables are shown in Figs 1 and 2 and S1–S4 Figs. Breastfed infants showed a rapid increase in weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-score in the first month of life and a decrease between 1–6 months, while formula fed infants showed a continuous increase in weight-for-age Z-score during the first six months (Fig 1). At six months, formula fed infants had a higher weight-for-age Z-score and weight-for-length Z-score compared to breastfed infants (Tables 4 and 5, Fig 1C and 1D). In the lowest birth weight quartile we observed a similar growth pattern: a quick weight gain for breast fed infants and a slower weight gain for formula fed infants (data not shown). In this period, multiparity was also associated with a decline in weight-for-age Z-score and weight-for-length Z-score (Tables 4 and 5, Fig 2A and 2B). From one to six months the prenatal domain was most important to explain differences in weight gain. It explained 26.6% of the changes in weight-for-age Z-score and 3.7% for weight-for-length Z-score (Table 3). This was followed by the nutrition domain, which explained 10.7% of variation in weight-for-age Z-score and 2.8% for weight-for-length Z-score changes over time.

Bottom Line: From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%).Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life.After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.

Methods: In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education) were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.

Results: Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%).

Conclusion: Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus