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Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.

Hu G, Liu X, He H, Zhang W, Xie H, Wu Y, Cui J, Sun C, Zhang X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years.Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile.Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110164, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

ABSTRACT
In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in the residue N content for the four soil layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm) under different treatments during 2009 to 2012.Error bars indicate standard deviations, n = 3.
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pone.0133437.g003: Changes in the residue N content for the four soil layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm) under different treatments during 2009 to 2012.Error bars indicate standard deviations, n = 3.

Mentions: In the 1st year (2009), only a small amount of initially applied residue N was incorporated into the soil total N, which accounted for no more than 1% of the soil total N increment (Fig 3). In the T1 treatment, the residue N content in the topsoil increased significantly to the highest level during the 3rd to 4th year, and the contribution of the residue N to soil total N displayed its highest value of 1.7% in the 4th year, and then decreased substantially afterwards (Fig 3, p = 0). In the subsoil (10–20 cm), the residue N content was relatively lower than in the topsoil, whereas exhibiting a similar variation trend as in the topsoil. In the deeper layers (20–60 cm), the residue N content was much lower compared to the topsoil, but exhibited an obvious increase over time in the 40–60 cm layer. For the T2 treatment, the residue N content in the topsoil increased gradually to the highest level in the 3rd to 4th year (Fig 3), and, on average, contributed 2.1% of the soil total N. In the subsoil, the residue N content increased gradually throughout the experiment. However, the deeper layers (20–60 cm) generally contained lower residue N and remained relatively stable (Fig 3).


Multi-Seasonal Nitrogen Recoveries from Crop Residue in Soil and Crop in a Temperate Agro-Ecosystem.

Hu G, Liu X, He H, Zhang W, Xie H, Wu Y, Cui J, Sun C, Zhang X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Changes in the residue N content for the four soil layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm) under different treatments during 2009 to 2012.Error bars indicate standard deviations, n = 3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507866&req=5

pone.0133437.g003: Changes in the residue N content for the four soil layers (0–10, 10–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm) under different treatments during 2009 to 2012.Error bars indicate standard deviations, n = 3.
Mentions: In the 1st year (2009), only a small amount of initially applied residue N was incorporated into the soil total N, which accounted for no more than 1% of the soil total N increment (Fig 3). In the T1 treatment, the residue N content in the topsoil increased significantly to the highest level during the 3rd to 4th year, and the contribution of the residue N to soil total N displayed its highest value of 1.7% in the 4th year, and then decreased substantially afterwards (Fig 3, p = 0). In the subsoil (10–20 cm), the residue N content was relatively lower than in the topsoil, whereas exhibiting a similar variation trend as in the topsoil. In the deeper layers (20–60 cm), the residue N content was much lower compared to the topsoil, but exhibited an obvious increase over time in the 40–60 cm layer. For the T2 treatment, the residue N content in the topsoil increased gradually to the highest level in the 3rd to 4th year (Fig 3), and, on average, contributed 2.1% of the soil total N. In the subsoil, the residue N content increased gradually throughout the experiment. However, the deeper layers (20–60 cm) generally contained lower residue N and remained relatively stable (Fig 3).

Bottom Line: On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years.Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile.Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110164, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

ABSTRACT
In conservation tillage systems, at least 30% of the soil surface was covered by crop residues which generally contain significant amounts of nitrogen (N). However, little is known about the multi-seasonal recoveries of the N derived from these crop residues in soil-crop systems, notably in northeastern China. In a temperate agro-ecosystem, 15N-labeled maize residue was applied to field surfaces in the 1st year (2009). From the 2nd to 4th year (2010-2012), one treatment halted the application of maize residue, whereas the soil in the second treatment was re-applied with unlabeled maize residue. Crop and soil samples were collected after each harvest, and their 15N enrichments were determined on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to trace the allocation of N derived from the initially applied maize residue in the soil-crop systems. On average, 8.4% of the maize residue N was recovered in the soil-crop in the 1st year, and the vast majority (61.9%-91.9%) was recovered during subsequent years. Throughout the experiment, the cumulative recovery of the residue N in the crop increased gradually (18.2%-20.9%), but most of the residue N was retained in the soil, notably in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Compared to the single application, the sequential residue application significantly increased the recovery of the residue N in the soil profile (73.8% vs. 40.9%) and remarkably decreased the total and the initially applied residue derived mineral N along the soil profile. Our results suggested that the residue N was actively involved in N cycling, and its release and recovery in crop and soil profile were controlled by the decomposition process. Sequential residue application significantly enhanced the retention and stabilization of the initially applied residue N in the soil and retarded its translocation along the soil profile.

No MeSH data available.