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The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

Abysique A, Tardivel C, Troadec JD, Félix B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration.Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles.Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: EA 4674, Laboratoire de Physiologie et Physiopathologie du Système Nerveux Somato-Moteur et Neurovégétatif, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Intravenously injected DON inhibited rhythmic swallowing triggered by SLN stimulation.A. Typical sublingual muscle electromyogram (note the rhythmic swallowing induced by SLN stimulation). DON (3mg/kg bw) injection induced a rapid and powerful inhibition of the number of swallows. 3 minutes after DON application, only three swallow were triggered by SLN stimulation. B. Electrocardiogram and respiratory activity recorded before, during and after SLN stimulation. Note the blockade of respiration induced by swallowing during SLN stimulation in control condition and at recovery 74 min after DON injection.
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pone.0133355.g002: Intravenously injected DON inhibited rhythmic swallowing triggered by SLN stimulation.A. Typical sublingual muscle electromyogram (note the rhythmic swallowing induced by SLN stimulation). DON (3mg/kg bw) injection induced a rapid and powerful inhibition of the number of swallows. 3 minutes after DON application, only three swallow were triggered by SLN stimulation. B. Electrocardiogram and respiratory activity recorded before, during and after SLN stimulation. Note the blockade of respiration induced by swallowing during SLN stimulation in control condition and at recovery 74 min after DON injection.

Mentions: Effects of DON were studied after intravenous administration on 24 rats from 32 trials. All doses of DON induced a significant inhibition of the swallows recorded during SLN or ST stimulation. At 3mg/kg body weight (bw) (14 rats, 16 trials) DON decreased the number of swallows with a latency of 2.91 ± 1.45 min [Figs 2A and 3A, Table 1]. This effect was maximal between 40 and 70 minutes after DON injection (32.1 ± 8.6 to 29.5 ± 8.4% decrease, P < 0.01) and lasted 70.61 ± 4.43 min. At 1.5 mg/kg bw (4 rats, 7 trials), DON induced a significant decrease in the number of swallows triggered by SLN or ST stimulation after a latency of 1.36 ± 0.42 min (Fig 3B and Table 1). Compared with the 3mg/kg dose, the effect presented similar amplitude (31.7 ± 10.7% decrease, P < 0.01) but a shorter duration, 41.43 ± 9.20 min. In the 6 tested rats (9 trials), injections of 0.3mg/kg bw DON decreased significantly the number of swallows 7 ± 1 min after the injection onset (23.4 ± 7.0%; P < 0.001) and this effect lasted 25.83 ± 7.64 min (Fig 3C and Table 1). Statistical comparison of the inhibitory effects of DON doses (Fig 3D) showed that inhibition time course was significantly different only between 3mg/kg and 0.3mg/kg. The difference between the two doses became significant between 35 and 75 minutes after DON injection.


The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

Abysique A, Tardivel C, Troadec JD, Félix B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Intravenously injected DON inhibited rhythmic swallowing triggered by SLN stimulation.A. Typical sublingual muscle electromyogram (note the rhythmic swallowing induced by SLN stimulation). DON (3mg/kg bw) injection induced a rapid and powerful inhibition of the number of swallows. 3 minutes after DON application, only three swallow were triggered by SLN stimulation. B. Electrocardiogram and respiratory activity recorded before, during and after SLN stimulation. Note the blockade of respiration induced by swallowing during SLN stimulation in control condition and at recovery 74 min after DON injection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507856&req=5

pone.0133355.g002: Intravenously injected DON inhibited rhythmic swallowing triggered by SLN stimulation.A. Typical sublingual muscle electromyogram (note the rhythmic swallowing induced by SLN stimulation). DON (3mg/kg bw) injection induced a rapid and powerful inhibition of the number of swallows. 3 minutes after DON application, only three swallow were triggered by SLN stimulation. B. Electrocardiogram and respiratory activity recorded before, during and after SLN stimulation. Note the blockade of respiration induced by swallowing during SLN stimulation in control condition and at recovery 74 min after DON injection.
Mentions: Effects of DON were studied after intravenous administration on 24 rats from 32 trials. All doses of DON induced a significant inhibition of the swallows recorded during SLN or ST stimulation. At 3mg/kg body weight (bw) (14 rats, 16 trials) DON decreased the number of swallows with a latency of 2.91 ± 1.45 min [Figs 2A and 3A, Table 1]. This effect was maximal between 40 and 70 minutes after DON injection (32.1 ± 8.6 to 29.5 ± 8.4% decrease, P < 0.01) and lasted 70.61 ± 4.43 min. At 1.5 mg/kg bw (4 rats, 7 trials), DON induced a significant decrease in the number of swallows triggered by SLN or ST stimulation after a latency of 1.36 ± 0.42 min (Fig 3B and Table 1). Compared with the 3mg/kg dose, the effect presented similar amplitude (31.7 ± 10.7% decrease, P < 0.01) but a shorter duration, 41.43 ± 9.20 min. In the 6 tested rats (9 trials), injections of 0.3mg/kg bw DON decreased significantly the number of swallows 7 ± 1 min after the injection onset (23.4 ± 7.0%; P < 0.001) and this effect lasted 25.83 ± 7.64 min (Fig 3C and Table 1). Statistical comparison of the inhibitory effects of DON doses (Fig 3D) showed that inhibition time course was significantly different only between 3mg/kg and 0.3mg/kg. The difference between the two doses became significant between 35 and 75 minutes after DON injection.

Bottom Line: To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration.Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles.Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: EA 4674, Laboratoire de Physiologie et Physiopathologie du Système Nerveux Somato-Moteur et Neurovégétatif, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus