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Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

Eisenstein SA, Gredysa DM, Antenor-Dorsey JA, Green L, Arbeláez AM, Koller JM, Black KJ, Perlmutter JS, Moerlein SM, Hershey T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks.Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting).These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychiatry Department, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Radiology Department, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30) and non-obese (n = 20; body mass index<30) adults were assessed for percent body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for β-cell function using disposition index. Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methyl)benperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting). Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting). In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Body Fat Relates to Probabilistic Reward Discounting in Non-obese but not Obese Women.(A) In non-obese women, higher percent body fat related to greater preference for a smaller, certain monetary reward relative to one that was larger but less likely. This relationship was not observed in (B) obese women. Data points are standardized residuals of variables after controlling for age, education, and ethnicity. PRDAuC, area under the curve for probabilistic reward discounting.
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pone.0133621.g004: Body Fat Relates to Probabilistic Reward Discounting in Non-obese but not Obese Women.(A) In non-obese women, higher percent body fat related to greater preference for a smaller, certain monetary reward relative to one that was larger but less likely. This relationship was not observed in (B) obese women. Data points are standardized residuals of variables after controlling for age, education, and ethnicity. PRDAuC, area under the curve for probabilistic reward discounting.

Mentions: In non-obese women, PBF significantly related to PRDAuC, such that non-obese women with higher PBF tended to prefer smaller but certain over larger but less likely monetary rewards (S4 Table, Fig 4A). This relationship was not observed in the total sample of women or within obese women (S4 Table, Fig 4B). Otherwise, relationships among variables were not particularly strengthened or weakened in analyses excluding men relative to the results described for analyses including both men and women (S5–S7 Tables).


Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

Eisenstein SA, Gredysa DM, Antenor-Dorsey JA, Green L, Arbeláez AM, Koller JM, Black KJ, Perlmutter JS, Moerlein SM, Hershey T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Body Fat Relates to Probabilistic Reward Discounting in Non-obese but not Obese Women.(A) In non-obese women, higher percent body fat related to greater preference for a smaller, certain monetary reward relative to one that was larger but less likely. This relationship was not observed in (B) obese women. Data points are standardized residuals of variables after controlling for age, education, and ethnicity. PRDAuC, area under the curve for probabilistic reward discounting.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507849&req=5

pone.0133621.g004: Body Fat Relates to Probabilistic Reward Discounting in Non-obese but not Obese Women.(A) In non-obese women, higher percent body fat related to greater preference for a smaller, certain monetary reward relative to one that was larger but less likely. This relationship was not observed in (B) obese women. Data points are standardized residuals of variables after controlling for age, education, and ethnicity. PRDAuC, area under the curve for probabilistic reward discounting.
Mentions: In non-obese women, PBF significantly related to PRDAuC, such that non-obese women with higher PBF tended to prefer smaller but certain over larger but less likely monetary rewards (S4 Table, Fig 4A). This relationship was not observed in the total sample of women or within obese women (S4 Table, Fig 4B). Otherwise, relationships among variables were not particularly strengthened or weakened in analyses excluding men relative to the results described for analyses including both men and women (S5–S7 Tables).

Bottom Line: Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks.Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting).These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychiatry Department, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America; Radiology Department, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30) and non-obese (n = 20; body mass index<30) adults were assessed for percent body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for β-cell function using disposition index. Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methyl)benperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting). Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting). In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus