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An open-source computational and data resource to analyze digital maps of immunopeptidomes.

Caron E, Espona L, Kowalewski DJ, Schuster H, Ternette N, Alpízar A, Schittenhelm RB, Ramarathinam SH, Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Chiek Koh C, Gillet LC, Rabsteyn A, Navarro P, Kim S, Lam H, Sturm T, Marcilla M, Sette A, Campbell DS, Deutsch EW, Moritz RL, Purcell AW, Rammensee HG, Stevanovic S, Aebersold R - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: We present a novel mass spectrometry-based high-throughput workflow and an open-source computational and data resource to reproducibly identify and quantify HLA-associated peptides.Collectively, the resources support the generation of HLA allele-specific peptide assay libraries consisting of consensus fragment ion spectra, and the analysis of quantitative digital maps of HLA peptidomes generated from a range of biological sources by SWATH mass spectrometry (MS).This study represents the first community-based effort to develop a robust platform for the reproducible and quantitative measurement of the entire repertoire of peptides presented by HLA molecules, an essential step towards the design of efficient immunotherapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
We present a novel mass spectrometry-based high-throughput workflow and an open-source computational and data resource to reproducibly identify and quantify HLA-associated peptides. Collectively, the resources support the generation of HLA allele-specific peptide assay libraries consisting of consensus fragment ion spectra, and the analysis of quantitative digital maps of HLA peptidomes generated from a range of biological sources by SWATH mass spectrometry (MS). This study represents the first community-based effort to develop a robust platform for the reproducible and quantitative measurement of the entire repertoire of peptides presented by HLA molecules, an essential step towards the design of efficient immunotherapies.

No MeSH data available.


Combining both open-source and commercial database search engines in immunopeptidomics.Analysis of PBMC#2 is shown here as an example. (A) Comparison of search results obtained from multiple search engines and for different class I HLA alleles at 1% and 5% peptide-level FDR. Performance of two commercial search engines (Mascot+Percolator or Mascot alone, and PEAKS) is also shown here for comparison. (B) Venn diagram showing the performance of the search engines at 5% pep-level FDR (2.5% cFDR).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07661.007
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fig1s3: Combining both open-source and commercial database search engines in immunopeptidomics.Analysis of PBMC#2 is shown here as an example. (A) Comparison of search results obtained from multiple search engines and for different class I HLA alleles at 1% and 5% peptide-level FDR. Performance of two commercial search engines (Mascot+Percolator or Mascot alone, and PEAKS) is also shown here for comparison. (B) Venn diagram showing the performance of the search engines at 5% pep-level FDR (2.5% cFDR).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07661.007

Mentions: To test our workflow, the generated data and computational resources, we first assessed the feasibility of generating HLA class I allele-specific peptide spectral libraries from a panel of fourteen PBMC samples (PBMC #1–14) expressing different combinations of HLA class I alleles. HLA class I-bound peptides were isolated from HLA-typed PBMC's by immunoaffinity chromatography and analyzed by DDA on an Orbitrap-XL mass spectrometer (Figure 2 and Figure 2—source data 1). Peptides were identified using multiple open-source database search engines. The search identifications were combined and statistically scored using PeptideProphet and iProphet within the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) as shown previously (Figure 1) (Shteynberg et al., 2011, 2013). We next annotated the identified peptides to their respective HLA allele. Previously, HLA binding prediction algorithms such as SYFPETHI, NetMHC and SMM were used for manual or semi-automated annotation of HLA peptides (Fortier et al., 2008; Berlin et al., 2014; Granados et al., 2014). Here, we designed a fully automated annotation strategy integrating the stand-alone software package of the HLA binding prediction algorithm NetMHC 3.4 with a set of in-house software tools (Figure 2—figure supplement 1). The in-house software tools enable an automated, consistent and effective annotation of the majority of the identified peptides to their respective HLA allele (Supplementary file 1). Briefly, each identified peptide was given a predicted HLA binding affinity (IC50) for each of the HLA alleles expressed in the corresponding healthy donor. An HLA annotation score was then computed for each individual peptide by dividing its second best IC50 value (i.e., the second best predicted allele) by its best IC50 value (i.e., the best predicted allele). The higher this annotation score was, the higher the probability was for the peptide to be correctly annotated to a specific HLA allele. As an example, in PMBC#2, an annotation score of 77 was computed for the KLEEQARAK peptide by dividing 21,400 nM (second best IC50 value predicted for HLA-B39) by 278 nM (best IC50 value predicted for HLA-A03) (Figure 2—figure supplement 1A). Peptides with an HLA annotation score ≥3 (selected cutoff value; see ‘Materials and methods’ and Supplementary file 1) were systematically annotated to the allele predicted to bind best (e.g., HLA-A03 for the KLEEQARAK peptide). Using this scoring strategy, ∼80% of all identified 8–12-mers were annotated to a specific HLA-A or -B allele (Figure 2—source data 2). HLA-A and -B alleles were prioritized due to the high reliability of the NetMHC 3.4 predictor for a broad diversity of HLA-A and -B alleles as well as for their high expression levels (Kim et al., 2014; Bassani-Sternberg et al., 2015; Trolle et al., 2015). Peptides with an annotation score below 3 were considered as non-annotated in this study and were discarded for the process of building the HLA allele-specific peptide spectral libraries. Tables including scored peptides were then used to generate heat maps and visualize HLA-A and -B peptidomes of PBMC's as described (Figure 2B and Supplementary file 1). Of note, allele-supertype peptides (i.e., peptides predicted to strongly bind more than one allele with an IC50 below 500 nM) were curated in the output files but were not visualized on the heat maps in this study. A corrected false discovery rate (cFDR) was estimated for each PBMC sample following removal of all non-annotated contaminant peptides (Figure 1—figure supplement 2 and Figure 1—figure supplement 3), resulting in a total of 4153 (peptide-level FDR 1%; average cFDR 0.5%) or 7921 (peptide-level FDR 5%; average cFDR 2.5%) distinct annotated peptides distributed across eighteen HLA class I alleles (Figure 2—figure supplement 2A and Figure 2—source data 3). All annotated peptides identified from the 14 PBMC samples were then used in SpectraST (Lam et al., 2008) to build the HLA class I allele-specific peptide spectral libraries (‘Materials and methods’). The same procedure was applied to peptides identified from JYEBV+ and C1R cells. Notably, endogenous HLA-C04 peptides were recently shown to be significantly expressed on the surface of C1R cells (Schittenhelm et al., 2014b) and were therefore considered in this study. In total, 3528 HLA-A peptides, 4208 HLA-B peptides and 205 HLA-C04 peptides were recorded in the spectral libraries, which were then stored in the public PeptideAtlas database (Figure 2—source data 4). In summary, we generated a computational workflow to effectively annotate and visualize HLA peptidomic data, which were finally converted and stored into HLA allele-specific peptide spectral libraries consisting of consensus fragment ion spectra. This strategy could be further refined to collect, store and share HLA peptidomic information obtained from various cell lines and from larger cohorts of donors. Importantly, this computational approach can be broadly applied to generate SWATH-compatible assay libraries as described below.


An open-source computational and data resource to analyze digital maps of immunopeptidomes.

Caron E, Espona L, Kowalewski DJ, Schuster H, Ternette N, Alpízar A, Schittenhelm RB, Ramarathinam SH, Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Chiek Koh C, Gillet LC, Rabsteyn A, Navarro P, Kim S, Lam H, Sturm T, Marcilla M, Sette A, Campbell DS, Deutsch EW, Moritz RL, Purcell AW, Rammensee HG, Stevanovic S, Aebersold R - Elife (2015)

Combining both open-source and commercial database search engines in immunopeptidomics.Analysis of PBMC#2 is shown here as an example. (A) Comparison of search results obtained from multiple search engines and for different class I HLA alleles at 1% and 5% peptide-level FDR. Performance of two commercial search engines (Mascot+Percolator or Mascot alone, and PEAKS) is also shown here for comparison. (B) Venn diagram showing the performance of the search engines at 5% pep-level FDR (2.5% cFDR).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07661.007
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507788&req=5

fig1s3: Combining both open-source and commercial database search engines in immunopeptidomics.Analysis of PBMC#2 is shown here as an example. (A) Comparison of search results obtained from multiple search engines and for different class I HLA alleles at 1% and 5% peptide-level FDR. Performance of two commercial search engines (Mascot+Percolator or Mascot alone, and PEAKS) is also shown here for comparison. (B) Venn diagram showing the performance of the search engines at 5% pep-level FDR (2.5% cFDR).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07661.007
Mentions: To test our workflow, the generated data and computational resources, we first assessed the feasibility of generating HLA class I allele-specific peptide spectral libraries from a panel of fourteen PBMC samples (PBMC #1–14) expressing different combinations of HLA class I alleles. HLA class I-bound peptides were isolated from HLA-typed PBMC's by immunoaffinity chromatography and analyzed by DDA on an Orbitrap-XL mass spectrometer (Figure 2 and Figure 2—source data 1). Peptides were identified using multiple open-source database search engines. The search identifications were combined and statistically scored using PeptideProphet and iProphet within the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) as shown previously (Figure 1) (Shteynberg et al., 2011, 2013). We next annotated the identified peptides to their respective HLA allele. Previously, HLA binding prediction algorithms such as SYFPETHI, NetMHC and SMM were used for manual or semi-automated annotation of HLA peptides (Fortier et al., 2008; Berlin et al., 2014; Granados et al., 2014). Here, we designed a fully automated annotation strategy integrating the stand-alone software package of the HLA binding prediction algorithm NetMHC 3.4 with a set of in-house software tools (Figure 2—figure supplement 1). The in-house software tools enable an automated, consistent and effective annotation of the majority of the identified peptides to their respective HLA allele (Supplementary file 1). Briefly, each identified peptide was given a predicted HLA binding affinity (IC50) for each of the HLA alleles expressed in the corresponding healthy donor. An HLA annotation score was then computed for each individual peptide by dividing its second best IC50 value (i.e., the second best predicted allele) by its best IC50 value (i.e., the best predicted allele). The higher this annotation score was, the higher the probability was for the peptide to be correctly annotated to a specific HLA allele. As an example, in PMBC#2, an annotation score of 77 was computed for the KLEEQARAK peptide by dividing 21,400 nM (second best IC50 value predicted for HLA-B39) by 278 nM (best IC50 value predicted for HLA-A03) (Figure 2—figure supplement 1A). Peptides with an HLA annotation score ≥3 (selected cutoff value; see ‘Materials and methods’ and Supplementary file 1) were systematically annotated to the allele predicted to bind best (e.g., HLA-A03 for the KLEEQARAK peptide). Using this scoring strategy, ∼80% of all identified 8–12-mers were annotated to a specific HLA-A or -B allele (Figure 2—source data 2). HLA-A and -B alleles were prioritized due to the high reliability of the NetMHC 3.4 predictor for a broad diversity of HLA-A and -B alleles as well as for their high expression levels (Kim et al., 2014; Bassani-Sternberg et al., 2015; Trolle et al., 2015). Peptides with an annotation score below 3 were considered as non-annotated in this study and were discarded for the process of building the HLA allele-specific peptide spectral libraries. Tables including scored peptides were then used to generate heat maps and visualize HLA-A and -B peptidomes of PBMC's as described (Figure 2B and Supplementary file 1). Of note, allele-supertype peptides (i.e., peptides predicted to strongly bind more than one allele with an IC50 below 500 nM) were curated in the output files but were not visualized on the heat maps in this study. A corrected false discovery rate (cFDR) was estimated for each PBMC sample following removal of all non-annotated contaminant peptides (Figure 1—figure supplement 2 and Figure 1—figure supplement 3), resulting in a total of 4153 (peptide-level FDR 1%; average cFDR 0.5%) or 7921 (peptide-level FDR 5%; average cFDR 2.5%) distinct annotated peptides distributed across eighteen HLA class I alleles (Figure 2—figure supplement 2A and Figure 2—source data 3). All annotated peptides identified from the 14 PBMC samples were then used in SpectraST (Lam et al., 2008) to build the HLA class I allele-specific peptide spectral libraries (‘Materials and methods’). The same procedure was applied to peptides identified from JYEBV+ and C1R cells. Notably, endogenous HLA-C04 peptides were recently shown to be significantly expressed on the surface of C1R cells (Schittenhelm et al., 2014b) and were therefore considered in this study. In total, 3528 HLA-A peptides, 4208 HLA-B peptides and 205 HLA-C04 peptides were recorded in the spectral libraries, which were then stored in the public PeptideAtlas database (Figure 2—source data 4). In summary, we generated a computational workflow to effectively annotate and visualize HLA peptidomic data, which were finally converted and stored into HLA allele-specific peptide spectral libraries consisting of consensus fragment ion spectra. This strategy could be further refined to collect, store and share HLA peptidomic information obtained from various cell lines and from larger cohorts of donors. Importantly, this computational approach can be broadly applied to generate SWATH-compatible assay libraries as described below.

Bottom Line: We present a novel mass spectrometry-based high-throughput workflow and an open-source computational and data resource to reproducibly identify and quantify HLA-associated peptides.Collectively, the resources support the generation of HLA allele-specific peptide assay libraries consisting of consensus fragment ion spectra, and the analysis of quantitative digital maps of HLA peptidomes generated from a range of biological sources by SWATH mass spectrometry (MS).This study represents the first community-based effort to develop a robust platform for the reproducible and quantitative measurement of the entire repertoire of peptides presented by HLA molecules, an essential step towards the design of efficient immunotherapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
We present a novel mass spectrometry-based high-throughput workflow and an open-source computational and data resource to reproducibly identify and quantify HLA-associated peptides. Collectively, the resources support the generation of HLA allele-specific peptide assay libraries consisting of consensus fragment ion spectra, and the analysis of quantitative digital maps of HLA peptidomes generated from a range of biological sources by SWATH mass spectrometry (MS). This study represents the first community-based effort to develop a robust platform for the reproducible and quantitative measurement of the entire repertoire of peptides presented by HLA molecules, an essential step towards the design of efficient immunotherapies.

No MeSH data available.