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Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

Voogd C, Wang T, Varkonyi-Gasic E - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members.Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling.These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research), Mt Albert, Private Bag 92169, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Constitutive expression of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes affects flowering in Arabidopsis. (A) Flowering time of primary transgenic (T1) Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in non-inductive short-day conditions. Flowering time was recorded as the number of rosette leaves when the primary inflorescence stems were 0.5cm long. Each dot represents one line. (B) Flowering time of T1 Arabidopsis soc1-2 plants grown in short-day conditions, recorded and presented as above. (C) Flowering time of hygromycin-resistant progeny (T2) of three independent T1 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in short-day conditions. (D) Transgene expression in T2 plants. (E) Normal rosette development of wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0. (F, G) Early bolting and small rosette leaves resulting from constitutive expression of AcSOC1 constructs. (H) Small first flower (arrow) in the AcSOC1e early flowering line (I, J) Abnormal flower development in lines expressing AcSOC1 genes. (H) Wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 flower. Scale bars=1mm.
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Figure 2: Constitutive expression of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes affects flowering in Arabidopsis. (A) Flowering time of primary transgenic (T1) Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in non-inductive short-day conditions. Flowering time was recorded as the number of rosette leaves when the primary inflorescence stems were 0.5cm long. Each dot represents one line. (B) Flowering time of T1 Arabidopsis soc1-2 plants grown in short-day conditions, recorded and presented as above. (C) Flowering time of hygromycin-resistant progeny (T2) of three independent T1 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in short-day conditions. (D) Transgene expression in T2 plants. (E) Normal rosette development of wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0. (F, G) Early bolting and small rosette leaves resulting from constitutive expression of AcSOC1 constructs. (H) Small first flower (arrow) in the AcSOC1e early flowering line (I, J) Abnormal flower development in lines expressing AcSOC1 genes. (H) Wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 flower. Scale bars=1mm.

Mentions: To examine whether the kiwifruit SOC1-like genes encode functional homologues of Arabidopsis SOC1, their coding sequences were introduced individually into the Arabidopsis wild-type ecotype Col-0 and late flowering soc1-2 mutant. Constitutive expression of all kiwifruit SOC1-like genes, except AcSOC1b, in wild-type Col-0 plants resulted in varying degrees of altered flowering time compared with that of Col-0 (Fig. 2A). All genes also showed the ability to complement the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed (Fig. 2B). A minimum of six hygromycin-resistant progeny of three AcSOC1e, AcSOCf, and AcSOC1i lines were further evaluated to confirm expression of the transgene and inheritance of the early flowering trait (Fig. 2C, D). Therefore, it is concluded that kiwifruit SOC1-like genes can act as floral activators in Arabidopsis. Early flowering plants had small rosettes (Fig. 2E–G) and often displayed altered floral development, including small flowers and flowers with large sepals and narrow sepaloid petals and carpel defects (Fig. 2H–K). Therefore, it is concluded that kiwifruit SOC1-like genes also impact on floral patterning.


Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

Voogd C, Wang T, Varkonyi-Gasic E - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Constitutive expression of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes affects flowering in Arabidopsis. (A) Flowering time of primary transgenic (T1) Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in non-inductive short-day conditions. Flowering time was recorded as the number of rosette leaves when the primary inflorescence stems were 0.5cm long. Each dot represents one line. (B) Flowering time of T1 Arabidopsis soc1-2 plants grown in short-day conditions, recorded and presented as above. (C) Flowering time of hygromycin-resistant progeny (T2) of three independent T1 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in short-day conditions. (D) Transgene expression in T2 plants. (E) Normal rosette development of wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0. (F, G) Early bolting and small rosette leaves resulting from constitutive expression of AcSOC1 constructs. (H) Small first flower (arrow) in the AcSOC1e early flowering line (I, J) Abnormal flower development in lines expressing AcSOC1 genes. (H) Wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 flower. Scale bars=1mm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 2: Constitutive expression of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes affects flowering in Arabidopsis. (A) Flowering time of primary transgenic (T1) Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in non-inductive short-day conditions. Flowering time was recorded as the number of rosette leaves when the primary inflorescence stems were 0.5cm long. Each dot represents one line. (B) Flowering time of T1 Arabidopsis soc1-2 plants grown in short-day conditions, recorded and presented as above. (C) Flowering time of hygromycin-resistant progeny (T2) of three independent T1 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis Col-0 plants grown in short-day conditions. (D) Transgene expression in T2 plants. (E) Normal rosette development of wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0. (F, G) Early bolting and small rosette leaves resulting from constitutive expression of AcSOC1 constructs. (H) Small first flower (arrow) in the AcSOC1e early flowering line (I, J) Abnormal flower development in lines expressing AcSOC1 genes. (H) Wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 flower. Scale bars=1mm.
Mentions: To examine whether the kiwifruit SOC1-like genes encode functional homologues of Arabidopsis SOC1, their coding sequences were introduced individually into the Arabidopsis wild-type ecotype Col-0 and late flowering soc1-2 mutant. Constitutive expression of all kiwifruit SOC1-like genes, except AcSOC1b, in wild-type Col-0 plants resulted in varying degrees of altered flowering time compared with that of Col-0 (Fig. 2A). All genes also showed the ability to complement the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed (Fig. 2B). A minimum of six hygromycin-resistant progeny of three AcSOC1e, AcSOCf, and AcSOC1i lines were further evaluated to confirm expression of the transgene and inheritance of the early flowering trait (Fig. 2C, D). Therefore, it is concluded that kiwifruit SOC1-like genes can act as floral activators in Arabidopsis. Early flowering plants had small rosettes (Fig. 2E–G) and often displayed altered floral development, including small flowers and flowers with large sepals and narrow sepaloid petals and carpel defects (Fig. 2H–K). Therefore, it is concluded that kiwifruit SOC1-like genes also impact on floral patterning.

Bottom Line: Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members.Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling.These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research), Mt Albert, Private Bag 92169, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus