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AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AIL6 and AIL7 act in a dose-dependent manner as shown by scanning electron micrographs. (A) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence meristem. (B, C) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (D) Surface of a flat organ arising in the periphery of an ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flower. Both giant cells characteristic of sepals (thin white arrow) and leaf-like cells (thick white arrow) are present. (E) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrows point to filaments that arise in place of flowers. (F) Inflorescence apex of ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 plant. No inflorescence meristem is visible. (G) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with many organ primordia that arise in altered positions and lack normal morphologies. (H) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with stamenoid organ (black arrow). Short filaments are present in this flower (white arrow). (I) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with unfused carpel valves and a second whorl filament (arrow). (J) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with carpels that are unfused at their apex. (K, L) ant-4 ail7-1/+ flowers showing loss of carpel fusion at the apex of the gynoecium. IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 20 μm (D), 50 μm (A), 100 μm (B, C, E–G), 200 μm (H, I), 500 μm in (J–L).
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Figure 6: AIL6 and AIL7 act in a dose-dependent manner as shown by scanning electron micrographs. (A) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence meristem. (B, C) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (D) Surface of a flat organ arising in the periphery of an ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flower. Both giant cells characteristic of sepals (thin white arrow) and leaf-like cells (thick white arrow) are present. (E) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrows point to filaments that arise in place of flowers. (F) Inflorescence apex of ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 plant. No inflorescence meristem is visible. (G) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with many organ primordia that arise in altered positions and lack normal morphologies. (H) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with stamenoid organ (black arrow). Short filaments are present in this flower (white arrow). (I) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with unfused carpel valves and a second whorl filament (arrow). (J) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with carpels that are unfused at their apex. (K, L) ant-4 ail7-1/+ flowers showing loss of carpel fusion at the apex of the gynoecium. IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 20 μm (D), 50 μm (A), 100 μm (B, C, E–G), 200 μm (H, I), 500 μm in (J–L).

Mentions: Because ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1 plants do not possess shoot apical meristems that persist long enough to produce flowers, the effect of the combined loss of ANT, AIL6, and AIL7 on flower development cannot be examined. It was decided to investigate the consequences of the loss of a single copy of AIL6 or AIL7 in a background compromised for ANT and either AIL7 or AIL6 activity, respectively. ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ plants produce flowers that are more severe than ant-4 ail6-2 with fewer and smaller organs (Figs 1I, 6A–C). ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers produced 5.5±1.5 organs per flower while ant-4 ail6-2 flowers produced 9.5±1.9 organs. Most ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ floral organs are green and filamentous with overall morphologies that lack a resemblance to a normal floral organ (Figs 1I, 6B, C). Some of the organs arising in the outer region of these flowers contain giant cells characteristic of sepals as well as leaf-like epidermal cells (Fig. 6D). ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescences terminate with the production of filaments in place of flowers (Fig. 1J).


AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

AIL6 and AIL7 act in a dose-dependent manner as shown by scanning electron micrographs. (A) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence meristem. (B, C) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (D) Surface of a flat organ arising in the periphery of an ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flower. Both giant cells characteristic of sepals (thin white arrow) and leaf-like cells (thick white arrow) are present. (E) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrows point to filaments that arise in place of flowers. (F) Inflorescence apex of ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 plant. No inflorescence meristem is visible. (G) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with many organ primordia that arise in altered positions and lack normal morphologies. (H) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with stamenoid organ (black arrow). Short filaments are present in this flower (white arrow). (I) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with unfused carpel valves and a second whorl filament (arrow). (J) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with carpels that are unfused at their apex. (K, L) ant-4 ail7-1/+ flowers showing loss of carpel fusion at the apex of the gynoecium. IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 20 μm (D), 50 μm (A), 100 μm (B, C, E–G), 200 μm (H, I), 500 μm in (J–L).
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Figure 6: AIL6 and AIL7 act in a dose-dependent manner as shown by scanning electron micrographs. (A) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence meristem. (B, C) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (D) Surface of a flat organ arising in the periphery of an ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flower. Both giant cells characteristic of sepals (thin white arrow) and leaf-like cells (thick white arrow) are present. (E) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrows point to filaments that arise in place of flowers. (F) Inflorescence apex of ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 plant. No inflorescence meristem is visible. (G) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with many organ primordia that arise in altered positions and lack normal morphologies. (H) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flower with stamenoid organ (black arrow). Short filaments are present in this flower (white arrow). (I) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with unfused carpel valves and a second whorl filament (arrow). (J) ant-4 ail6-2/+ flower with carpels that are unfused at their apex. (K, L) ant-4 ail7-1/+ flowers showing loss of carpel fusion at the apex of the gynoecium. IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 20 μm (D), 50 μm (A), 100 μm (B, C, E–G), 200 μm (H, I), 500 μm in (J–L).
Mentions: Because ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1 plants do not possess shoot apical meristems that persist long enough to produce flowers, the effect of the combined loss of ANT, AIL6, and AIL7 on flower development cannot be examined. It was decided to investigate the consequences of the loss of a single copy of AIL6 or AIL7 in a background compromised for ANT and either AIL7 or AIL6 activity, respectively. ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ plants produce flowers that are more severe than ant-4 ail6-2 with fewer and smaller organs (Figs 1I, 6A–C). ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers produced 5.5±1.5 organs per flower while ant-4 ail6-2 flowers produced 9.5±1.9 organs. Most ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ floral organs are green and filamentous with overall morphologies that lack a resemblance to a normal floral organ (Figs 1I, 6B, C). Some of the organs arising in the outer region of these flowers contain giant cells characteristic of sepals as well as leaf-like epidermal cells (Fig. 6D). ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescences terminate with the production of filaments in place of flowers (Fig. 1J).

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus