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AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AIL5 and AIL7 contribute to ovule development. (A) Ler ovules. (B) ant-4 ovules. Arrow points to swelling in chalazal region. (C, D) ant-4 ail5-3 ovules. Arrow in (D) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. (E, F) ant-4 ail7-1 ovules. Arrow in (F) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. Scale bars, 50 μm.
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Figure 4: AIL5 and AIL7 contribute to ovule development. (A) Ler ovules. (B) ant-4 ovules. Arrow points to swelling in chalazal region. (C, D) ant-4 ail5-3 ovules. Arrow in (D) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. (E, F) ant-4 ail7-1 ovules. Arrow in (F) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. Scale bars, 50 μm.

Mentions: In addition to petal defects, ant-4 ail5-3 flowers exhibit more severe defects in whorls one and four compared with ant-4. ant-4 ail5-3 flowers show an increase frequency of sepal fusion (Table 3) and scanning electron microscopy of ant-4 ail5-3 flowers reveals altered patterns of sepal initiation and growth (Fig. 2A, B, E). Sepal primordia do not always arise in the characteristic adaxial and abaxial positions separated by 180 °C (Fig. 2E). Boundaries between adjacent sepals are not established in some flowers leading to the growth of two adjacent sepals as a fused structure (Fig. 2E, H). Examination of a cleared ant-4 ail5-3 gynoecium suggested that the double mutant might exhibit a more severe defect in ovule development than ant-4 (Fig. 3A–C). While ant-4 ovules do not initiate integuments (Baker et al., 1997), they often show a slight swelling in the chalazal region (Fig. 4A, B); this swelling was not observed in ant-4 ail5-3 ovules (Fig. 4C, D). In addition, some ant-4 ail5-3 ovule primordia were very short with no cellular distinction of regional identities (nucellus, chalaza, funiculus) along the apical-basal axis of the ovule (Fig. 4D).


AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

AIL5 and AIL7 contribute to ovule development. (A) Ler ovules. (B) ant-4 ovules. Arrow points to swelling in chalazal region. (C, D) ant-4 ail5-3 ovules. Arrow in (D) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. (E, F) ant-4 ail7-1 ovules. Arrow in (F) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. Scale bars, 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507765&req=5

Figure 4: AIL5 and AIL7 contribute to ovule development. (A) Ler ovules. (B) ant-4 ovules. Arrow points to swelling in chalazal region. (C, D) ant-4 ail5-3 ovules. Arrow in (D) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. (E, F) ant-4 ail7-1 ovules. Arrow in (F) points to small ovule primordium that lacks regional distinctions. Scale bars, 50 μm.
Mentions: In addition to petal defects, ant-4 ail5-3 flowers exhibit more severe defects in whorls one and four compared with ant-4. ant-4 ail5-3 flowers show an increase frequency of sepal fusion (Table 3) and scanning electron microscopy of ant-4 ail5-3 flowers reveals altered patterns of sepal initiation and growth (Fig. 2A, B, E). Sepal primordia do not always arise in the characteristic adaxial and abaxial positions separated by 180 °C (Fig. 2E). Boundaries between adjacent sepals are not established in some flowers leading to the growth of two adjacent sepals as a fused structure (Fig. 2E, H). Examination of a cleared ant-4 ail5-3 gynoecium suggested that the double mutant might exhibit a more severe defect in ovule development than ant-4 (Fig. 3A–C). While ant-4 ovules do not initiate integuments (Baker et al., 1997), they often show a slight swelling in the chalazal region (Fig. 4A, B); this swelling was not observed in ant-4 ail5-3 ovules (Fig. 4C, D). In addition, some ant-4 ail5-3 ovule primordia were very short with no cellular distinction of regional identities (nucellus, chalaza, funiculus) along the apical-basal axis of the ovule (Fig. 4D).

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus