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AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scanning electron micrographs of Ler, ant-4 and ant-4 ail mutant combinations. (A) Ler inflorescence meristem. (B) ant-4 inflorescence meristem. (C) ant-4 flower. (D) ant-4 carpels. (E) ant-4 ail5-3 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to the reduced boundary between two adjacent sepal primordia. (F) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with filaments in the second whorl in place of petals. Arrow points to one filament. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with a thin petal in the second whorl. (H) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with fused sepals. (I) ant-4 ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to filament-like structure that arises in place of a flower. (J) Young ant-4 ail7-1 flower showing abnormal development of the fourth whorl carpels. (K) ant-4 ail7-1 flower with two unfused carpels in the fourth whorl. (L) ant-4 ail7-1 carpels in which the valves are unfused at their apex and some stigmatic tissue arises at their edges. (M, N) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 inflorescence meristems. Arrows in (N) point to filament-like structures that arise in place of flowers. (O, P) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers with stamenoid organs (arrows). IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 50 μm (A, B, E, I, J, M, N), 100 μm (K) 200 μm (C, D, F–H, L, O), 500 μm (P).
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Figure 2: Scanning electron micrographs of Ler, ant-4 and ant-4 ail mutant combinations. (A) Ler inflorescence meristem. (B) ant-4 inflorescence meristem. (C) ant-4 flower. (D) ant-4 carpels. (E) ant-4 ail5-3 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to the reduced boundary between two adjacent sepal primordia. (F) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with filaments in the second whorl in place of petals. Arrow points to one filament. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with a thin petal in the second whorl. (H) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with fused sepals. (I) ant-4 ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to filament-like structure that arises in place of a flower. (J) Young ant-4 ail7-1 flower showing abnormal development of the fourth whorl carpels. (K) ant-4 ail7-1 flower with two unfused carpels in the fourth whorl. (L) ant-4 ail7-1 carpels in which the valves are unfused at their apex and some stigmatic tissue arises at their edges. (M, N) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 inflorescence meristems. Arrows in (N) point to filament-like structures that arise in place of flowers. (O, P) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers with stamenoid organs (arrows). IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 50 μm (A, B, E, I, J, M, N), 100 μm (K) 200 μm (C, D, F–H, L, O), 500 μm (P).

Mentions: To investigate whether AIL5 acts redundantly with ANT, ant-4 ail5-2 and ant-4 ail5-3 double mutants were constructed. Both double mutants show a more severe second whorl phenotype compared with ant-4. ant-4 ail5-2 flowers produce similar numbers of petals as ant-4 but these petals are smaller in size (Fig. 1A–C; Tables 1, 2). ant-4 ail5-3 flowers produce many fewer petals than ant-4; most second whorl organs are missing or replaced with filaments (Figs 1D, 2C, F; Table 1). The petals that are present are very thin (Fig. 2G; Table 2). The ant-4 ail5-3 double mutant was characterized in more detail.


AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Scanning electron micrographs of Ler, ant-4 and ant-4 ail mutant combinations. (A) Ler inflorescence meristem. (B) ant-4 inflorescence meristem. (C) ant-4 flower. (D) ant-4 carpels. (E) ant-4 ail5-3 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to the reduced boundary between two adjacent sepal primordia. (F) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with filaments in the second whorl in place of petals. Arrow points to one filament. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with a thin petal in the second whorl. (H) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with fused sepals. (I) ant-4 ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to filament-like structure that arises in place of a flower. (J) Young ant-4 ail7-1 flower showing abnormal development of the fourth whorl carpels. (K) ant-4 ail7-1 flower with two unfused carpels in the fourth whorl. (L) ant-4 ail7-1 carpels in which the valves are unfused at their apex and some stigmatic tissue arises at their edges. (M, N) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 inflorescence meristems. Arrows in (N) point to filament-like structures that arise in place of flowers. (O, P) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers with stamenoid organs (arrows). IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 50 μm (A, B, E, I, J, M, N), 100 μm (K) 200 μm (C, D, F–H, L, O), 500 μm (P).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507765&req=5

Figure 2: Scanning electron micrographs of Ler, ant-4 and ant-4 ail mutant combinations. (A) Ler inflorescence meristem. (B) ant-4 inflorescence meristem. (C) ant-4 flower. (D) ant-4 carpels. (E) ant-4 ail5-3 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to the reduced boundary between two adjacent sepal primordia. (F) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with filaments in the second whorl in place of petals. Arrow points to one filament. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with a thin petal in the second whorl. (H) ant-4 ail5-3 flower with fused sepals. (I) ant-4 ail7-1 inflorescence meristem. Arrow points to filament-like structure that arises in place of a flower. (J) Young ant-4 ail7-1 flower showing abnormal development of the fourth whorl carpels. (K) ant-4 ail7-1 flower with two unfused carpels in the fourth whorl. (L) ant-4 ail7-1 carpels in which the valves are unfused at their apex and some stigmatic tissue arises at their edges. (M, N) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 inflorescence meristems. Arrows in (N) point to filament-like structures that arise in place of flowers. (O, P) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers with stamenoid organs (arrows). IM, inflorescence meristem; Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Ca, carpel. Scale bars, 50 μm (A, B, E, I, J, M, N), 100 μm (K) 200 μm (C, D, F–H, L, O), 500 μm (P).
Mentions: To investigate whether AIL5 acts redundantly with ANT, ant-4 ail5-2 and ant-4 ail5-3 double mutants were constructed. Both double mutants show a more severe second whorl phenotype compared with ant-4. ant-4 ail5-2 flowers produce similar numbers of petals as ant-4 but these petals are smaller in size (Fig. 1A–C; Tables 1, 2). ant-4 ail5-3 flowers produce many fewer petals than ant-4; most second whorl organs are missing or replaced with filaments (Figs 1D, 2C, F; Table 1). The petals that are present are very thin (Fig. 2G; Table 2). The ant-4 ail5-3 double mutant was characterized in more detail.

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus