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AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AIL5 and AIL7 have partially overlapping functions with ANT in flower development. (A) Ler flower. (B) ant-4 flower. (C) ant-4 ail5-2 flower. (D) ant-4 ail5-3 flower. (E) ant-4 ail7-1 flower. (F) ant-4 ail6-2 flower. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 ail6-2 flower. (H) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers. (I) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (J) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence. (K) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flowers. (L) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence.
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Figure 1: AIL5 and AIL7 have partially overlapping functions with ANT in flower development. (A) Ler flower. (B) ant-4 flower. (C) ant-4 ail5-2 flower. (D) ant-4 ail5-3 flower. (E) ant-4 ail7-1 flower. (F) ant-4 ail6-2 flower. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 ail6-2 flower. (H) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers. (I) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (J) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence. (K) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flowers. (L) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence.

Mentions: Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) family of transcription factors play important roles in many developmental processes in plants including flower development (reviewed in Horstman et al., 2014). AILs are a small subgroup of eight proteins within the large AP2/ERF transcription factor family (see Supplementary Fig. S1 at JXB online). The founding member of the family, AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), is a key regulator of floral organ growth. Mutations in AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) result in flowers with smaller floral organs while ectopic expression of ANT results in floral organs that reach a larger final size (Elliott et al., 1996; Klucher et al., 1996; Krizek, 1999; Mizukami and Fischer, 2000). In addition, ant mutants have ovule defects and are female sterile (Elliott et al., 1996; Klucher et al., 1996). Three other AIL genes: AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 are expressed in developing flowers at lower levels than ANT but in spatial domains that partially overlap that of ANT (Nole-Wilson et al., 2005) (see Supplementary Fig. S1 at JXB online). Loss of AIL5, AIL6 or AIL7 function by itself has no phenotypic consequences on flower development (Nole-Wilson et al., 2005; Krizek, 2009; Prasad et al., 2011). In the case of AIL6, this is due to genetic redundancy with ANT (Krizek, 2009). ant ail6 flowers exhibit severe defects in floral organ positioning, identity specification, growth, and patterning. These flowers consist primarily of small sepals, filaments, and unfused carpel valves; they lack petals and stamens and a normal gynoecium (Fig. 1F). The floral organ identity defects in ant ail6 flowers are likely to be a consequence of reduced expression of class B and C genes during the early stages of flower development.


AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

Krizek BA - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

AIL5 and AIL7 have partially overlapping functions with ANT in flower development. (A) Ler flower. (B) ant-4 flower. (C) ant-4 ail5-2 flower. (D) ant-4 ail5-3 flower. (E) ant-4 ail7-1 flower. (F) ant-4 ail6-2 flower. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 ail6-2 flower. (H) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers. (I) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (J) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence. (K) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flowers. (L) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: AIL5 and AIL7 have partially overlapping functions with ANT in flower development. (A) Ler flower. (B) ant-4 flower. (C) ant-4 ail5-2 flower. (D) ant-4 ail5-3 flower. (E) ant-4 ail7-1 flower. (F) ant-4 ail6-2 flower. (G) ant-4 ail5-3 ail6-2 flower. (H) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail5-3 ail7-1 flowers. (I) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ flowers. (J) ant-4 ail6-2 ail7-1/+ inflorescence. (K) Early-arising (left) and later-arising (right) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 flowers. (L) ant-4 ail6-2/+ ail7-1 inflorescence.
Mentions: Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) family of transcription factors play important roles in many developmental processes in plants including flower development (reviewed in Horstman et al., 2014). AILs are a small subgroup of eight proteins within the large AP2/ERF transcription factor family (see Supplementary Fig. S1 at JXB online). The founding member of the family, AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), is a key regulator of floral organ growth. Mutations in AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) result in flowers with smaller floral organs while ectopic expression of ANT results in floral organs that reach a larger final size (Elliott et al., 1996; Klucher et al., 1996; Krizek, 1999; Mizukami and Fischer, 2000). In addition, ant mutants have ovule defects and are female sterile (Elliott et al., 1996; Klucher et al., 1996). Three other AIL genes: AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 are expressed in developing flowers at lower levels than ANT but in spatial domains that partially overlap that of ANT (Nole-Wilson et al., 2005) (see Supplementary Fig. S1 at JXB online). Loss of AIL5, AIL6 or AIL7 function by itself has no phenotypic consequences on flower development (Nole-Wilson et al., 2005; Krizek, 2009; Prasad et al., 2011). In the case of AIL6, this is due to genetic redundancy with ANT (Krizek, 2009). ant ail6 flowers exhibit severe defects in floral organ positioning, identity specification, growth, and patterning. These flowers consist primarily of small sepals, filaments, and unfused carpel valves; they lack petals and stamens and a normal gynoecium (Fig. 1F). The floral organ identity defects in ant ail6 flowers are likely to be a consequence of reduced expression of class B and C genes during the early stages of flower development.

Bottom Line: These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants.While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants.Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA krizek@sc.edu.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus