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A G protein alpha mutation confers prolificacy potential in maize.

Urano D, Jackson D, Jones AM - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: The ct2 mutant partially compensated for a reduced shoot height by increased total leaf number, and had far more ears, even in the presence of pollination signals.The maize heterotrimeric G protein complex is important in some plastic developmental traits in maize.In particular, the maize Gα subunit is required to dampen the overproduction of female inflorescences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Coker Hall, NC 27599-3280, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Female inflorescences formed on the uppermost shank. (A–E) Axillary ear shoots formed on the uppermost ear shanks of 15-week-old B73 or ct2 plants with or without pollination. Apical and axillary ears are defined as shown in (C). Husk leaves were removed for imaging. (A, B) Apical and axillary ears sampled from three B73 plants. Note that axillary ears rarely emerged with the B73 genetic background. (D, E) Apical and axillary ears of a representative ct2 plant. Red arrowheads point to secondary axillary branches emerging on an axillary ear shoot. Another image for ct2 is presented in Supplementary Fig. S3 at JXB online. (F) Number of axillary ear shoots emerging on the uppermost shank of B73 and ct2. The graph shows raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Signifies significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by Student’s t test. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online.
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Figure 3: Female inflorescences formed on the uppermost shank. (A–E) Axillary ear shoots formed on the uppermost ear shanks of 15-week-old B73 or ct2 plants with or without pollination. Apical and axillary ears are defined as shown in (C). Husk leaves were removed for imaging. (A, B) Apical and axillary ears sampled from three B73 plants. Note that axillary ears rarely emerged with the B73 genetic background. (D, E) Apical and axillary ears of a representative ct2 plant. Red arrowheads point to secondary axillary branches emerging on an axillary ear shoot. Another image for ct2 is presented in Supplementary Fig. S3 at JXB online. (F) Number of axillary ear shoots emerging on the uppermost shank of B73 and ct2. The graph shows raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Signifies significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by Student’s t test. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online.

Mentions: Low pollination of ct2 caused axillary ear formation two or more weeks after the apical ear emerged (see Supplementary Fig. S2C, E at JXB online), probably by releasing them from growth arrest. Because the ct2 mutation showed an additive effect with low pollination, it was predicted that more female inflorescences were formed on ct2 mutant shanks. Therefore, ear shoots were dissected and all mature and immature female inflorescences of B73 and ct2 were counted (Fig. 3), and it was found that B73 had few axillary inflorescences (B73 with pollination, mean 0.43 axillary ears; B73 without pollination, 0.57 axillary ears) (Fig. 3F; see Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online). These axillary ear shoots aborted when the apical ear shoot was pollinated (Fig. 3A), but elongated when the apical ear had not been pollinated (Fig. 3B). The ct2 mutant increased the number of axillary ear shoots (Fig. 3D–F) and occasionally exhibited secondary axillary ear shoots from the axillary ears (indicated by red arrowheads in Fig. 3E and in Supplementary Fig. S3 at JXB online). Pollination did not affect the number of inflorescences on the uppermost ear shank (ct2 with pollination, mean 5.0 ears; ct2 without pollination, 5.7 ears), but low pollination allowed them to elongate, as observed for B73 (Fig. 3B, E). These results indicate that the ct2 mutation allowed more prolific formation of axillary ear shoots, while low pollination caused a general release of the axillary ear shoots from growth arrest.


A G protein alpha mutation confers prolificacy potential in maize.

Urano D, Jackson D, Jones AM - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Female inflorescences formed on the uppermost shank. (A–E) Axillary ear shoots formed on the uppermost ear shanks of 15-week-old B73 or ct2 plants with or without pollination. Apical and axillary ears are defined as shown in (C). Husk leaves were removed for imaging. (A, B) Apical and axillary ears sampled from three B73 plants. Note that axillary ears rarely emerged with the B73 genetic background. (D, E) Apical and axillary ears of a representative ct2 plant. Red arrowheads point to secondary axillary branches emerging on an axillary ear shoot. Another image for ct2 is presented in Supplementary Fig. S3 at JXB online. (F) Number of axillary ear shoots emerging on the uppermost shank of B73 and ct2. The graph shows raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Signifies significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by Student’s t test. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: Female inflorescences formed on the uppermost shank. (A–E) Axillary ear shoots formed on the uppermost ear shanks of 15-week-old B73 or ct2 plants with or without pollination. Apical and axillary ears are defined as shown in (C). Husk leaves were removed for imaging. (A, B) Apical and axillary ears sampled from three B73 plants. Note that axillary ears rarely emerged with the B73 genetic background. (D, E) Apical and axillary ears of a representative ct2 plant. Red arrowheads point to secondary axillary branches emerging on an axillary ear shoot. Another image for ct2 is presented in Supplementary Fig. S3 at JXB online. (F) Number of axillary ear shoots emerging on the uppermost shank of B73 and ct2. The graph shows raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Signifies significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by Student’s t test. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online.
Mentions: Low pollination of ct2 caused axillary ear formation two or more weeks after the apical ear emerged (see Supplementary Fig. S2C, E at JXB online), probably by releasing them from growth arrest. Because the ct2 mutation showed an additive effect with low pollination, it was predicted that more female inflorescences were formed on ct2 mutant shanks. Therefore, ear shoots were dissected and all mature and immature female inflorescences of B73 and ct2 were counted (Fig. 3), and it was found that B73 had few axillary inflorescences (B73 with pollination, mean 0.43 axillary ears; B73 without pollination, 0.57 axillary ears) (Fig. 3F; see Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online). These axillary ear shoots aborted when the apical ear shoot was pollinated (Fig. 3A), but elongated when the apical ear had not been pollinated (Fig. 3B). The ct2 mutant increased the number of axillary ear shoots (Fig. 3D–F) and occasionally exhibited secondary axillary ear shoots from the axillary ears (indicated by red arrowheads in Fig. 3E and in Supplementary Fig. S3 at JXB online). Pollination did not affect the number of inflorescences on the uppermost ear shank (ct2 with pollination, mean 5.0 ears; ct2 without pollination, 5.7 ears), but low pollination allowed them to elongate, as observed for B73 (Fig. 3B, E). These results indicate that the ct2 mutation allowed more prolific formation of axillary ear shoots, while low pollination caused a general release of the axillary ear shoots from growth arrest.

Bottom Line: The ct2 mutant partially compensated for a reduced shoot height by increased total leaf number, and had far more ears, even in the presence of pollination signals.The maize heterotrimeric G protein complex is important in some plastic developmental traits in maize.In particular, the maize Gα subunit is required to dampen the overproduction of female inflorescences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Coker Hall, NC 27599-3280, USA.

No MeSH data available.